consumer behavior

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consumer behavior
2010-10-19 10:50:30

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  1. Blended family
    A family consisting of a couple, one or both of whom were previously married, their children, and the children from the previous marriage of one or both parents.
  2. Consumer skills
    Those capabilities necessary for purchases to occur such as understanding money, budgeting, product evaluation, and so forth.
  3. Consumer socialization
    The process by which young people acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes relevant to their functioning as consumers in the marketplace.
  4. Consumption-related attitudes
    Cognitive and affective orientations toward marketplace stimuli such as advertisements, salespeople, warranties, and so forth.
  5. Consumption-related preferences
    The knowledge, attitudes, and values that cause people to attach differential evaluations to products, brands, and retail outlets.
  6. Family decision making
    The process by which decisions that directly or indirectly involve two or more family members are made.
  7. Family household
    A household consisting of a family and any unrelated people residing in the same housing unit.
  8. HLC/occupational category matrix
    Determines the problems the household will likely encounter and provides a range of acceptable solutions.
  9. Household
    All the people who occupy a housing unit.
  10. Household life cycle (HLC)
    Based on the age and marital status of the adult member of the household and the presence and age of children.
  11. Instrumental training
    Occurs when a parent or sibling specifically and directly attempts to bring about certain responses through reasoning or reinforcement.
  12. Mediation
    Occurs when a parent alters a child's initial interpretation of, our response to, a marketing or other stimulus.
  13. Modeling
    Occurs when a child learns appropriate, or inappropriate, consumption behaviors by observing others.
  14. Nonfamily household
    A householder living alone or exclusively with others to whom he or she is not related.
  15. Piaget's stages of cognitive development
    A widely accepted set of stages of cognitive development.
  16. Traditional family
    A married couple and their own or adopted children living at home.
  17. Adopter categories
    Five groups of adopters of any given innovation based on the relative time at which they adopt.
  18. Adoption process
    A series of distinct steps or stages individual consumers presumably go through.
  19. Asch phenomenon
    The na�ve subject almost always agrees with the incorrect judgment of the others.
  20. Aspiration reference groups
    Nonmembership groups with a positive attraction.
  21. Blogs
    Personalized journals where people and organizations can keep a running dialogue.
  22. Brand community
    A nongeographically bound community, based on a structured set of social relationships among owners of a brand and the psychological relationship they have with the brand itself, the product in use, and the firm.
  23. Buzz
    The exponential expansion of WOM.
  24. Community
    Characterized by consciousness of kind, shared rituals and traditions, and a sense of more responsibility.
  25. Consumption subculture
    A distinctive subgroup of society that self-selects on the basis of a shared commitment to a particular product class, brand, or consumption activity.
  26. Diffusion process
    The manner in which innovation spread throughout a market.
  27. Dissociative reference groups
    Groups with negative desirability.
  28. Early adopters
    Tend to be opinion leaders in local reference groups.
  29. Early majority
    Consumers who tend to be cautious about innovations.
  30. Enduring involvement
    A greater long-term involvement with the product category than the non-opinion leaders in the group.
  31. Group
    Two or more individuals who share a set of norms, values, or beliefs and have certain implicitly or explicitly defined relationships to one another such that their behaviors are interdependent.
  32. Identification influence
    Also called value-expressive, occurs when individuals have internalized the group's values and norms.
  33. Informational influence
    Occurs when an individual uses the behaviors and opinions of reference group members as potentially useful bits of information.
  34. Innovation
    An idea, practice, or product perceived to be new by the relevant individual or group.
  35. Innovators
    Venturesome risk takers.
  36. Laggards
    Locally oriented and engage in limited social interaction.
  37. Late majority
    Members who are skeptical about innovations.
  38. Market mavens
    Both initiate discussions with others about products and shopping and respond to requests for market information.
  39. Multistep flow of communication
    Involves opinion leaders for a particular product area who actively seek relevant information from the mass media as well as other sources.
  40. Normative influence
    Occurs when an individual fulfills group expectations to gain a direct reward or to avoid a sanction.
  41. Online community
    A community that interacts over time around a topic of interest on the Internet.
  42. Online social network site
    Web-based service that allows individuals to (1) construct a public or semipublic profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system.
  43. Opinion leader
    An individual who actively filters, interprets, or provides product and brand relevant information to their family, friends, and colleagues.
  44. Primary groups
    Groups characterized by frequent interpersonal contact.
  45. Reference group
    A groups whose presumed perspectives or values are being used by an individual as the basis for his or her current behavior.
  46. Secondary groups
    Groups characterized by limited interpersonal contact.
  47. Two-step flow of communication
    The process of one person receiving information form the mass media or other sources and passing it on to others.
  48. Viral marketing
    An online "pass-it-along" strategy. It "uses electronic communications to trigger brand messages throughout a widespread network of buyers."
  49. Word-of-mouth (WOM) communications
    Individuals sharing information with other individuals.
  50. Ad avoidance
    Ways for consumers to selectively avoid exposure to advertising messages.
  51. Adaptation level theory
    Deals with the phenomenon of people adjusting to the level and type of stimuli to which they are exposed.
  52. Affective interpretation
    The emotional or feeling response triggered by a stimulus such as an ad.
  53. Ambush marketing
    Involves any communication or activity that implies, or from which one could reasonably infer, that an organization is associated with an event, when in fact it is not.
  54. Attention
    Occurs when the stimulus activates one or more sensory receptor nerves, and the resulting sensations go to the brain for processing.
  55. Brand extension
    Where an existing brand extends to a new category with the same name.
  56. Brand familiarity
    An ability factor related to attention.
  57. Closure
    Presenting an incomplete stimulus with the goal of getting consumers to complete it and thus become more engaged and involved.
  58. Co-branding
    Also referred to as co-marketing, brand alliances, and joint marketing, in which two brand names are given to a single product.
  59. Cognitive interpretation
    A process whereby stimuli are placed into existing categories of meaning.
  60. Contextual cues
    Play a role in consumer interpretation independent of the actual stimulus in a situation.
  61. Cross-promotions
    Whereby signage in one area of the store promotes complementary products in another.
  62. Exposure
    Occurs when a stimulus comes within range of our sensory receptor nerves.
  63. Figure�ground
    Presenting the stimulus in such a way that it is perceived as the focal object to be attended to and all other stimuli are perceived as the background.
  64. Hemispheric lateralization
    Applies to activities that take place on each side of the brain.
  65. Inference
    Goes beyond what is directly stated or presented.
  66. Infomercials
    Program-length commercials (often 30 minutes), generally with an 800 number and/or Web address through which to order the product or request additional written information.
  67. Information overload
    Occurs when consumers are confronted with so much information that they cannot or will not attend to all of it.
  68. Information processing
    A series of activities by which stimuli are perceived, transformed into information, and stored.
  69. Interpretation
    The assignment of meaning to sensations.
  70. Just noticeable difference (j.n.d.)
    The minimum amount that one brand can differ from another with the difference still being noticed.
  71. Muting
    Turning the sound off during commercial breaks.
  72. Perception
    Comprised of exposure, attention, and interpretation.
  73. Perceptual defenses
    Individuals are not passive recipients of marketing messages.
  74. Perceptual relativity
    An aspect of interpretation that is generally a relative process rather than absolute.
  75. Permission-based marketing
    The voluntary and self-selected nature of online offerings where consumers "opt in" to receive e-mail-based promotions.
  76. Product placement
    Shows how and when to use a product and it enhances the product's image.
  77. Proximity
    Refers to the fact that stimuli positioned close together are perceived as belonging to the same category.
  78. Rhetorical figures
    Involve the use of an unexpected twist or artful deviation in how a message is communicated either visually in the ad's picture or verbally in the ad's text or headline.
  79. Sensory discrimination
    The ability of an individual to distinguish between similar stimuli.
  80. Smart banners
    Banner ads that are activated based on items used in search engines.
  81. Stimulus organization
    Refers to the physical arrangement of the stimulus objects.
  82. Subliminal stimulus
    A message presented so fast or so softly or so masked by other messages that one is not aware of seeing or hearing it.
  83. Zapping
    Involves switching channels when a commercial appears.
  84. Zipping
    Occurs when one fast-forwards through a commercial on a prerecorded program.
  85. Accessibility
    The likelihood and ease with which information can be recalled from LTM.
  86. Advertising wearout
    An effect where too much repetition causes consumers to actively shut out the message, evaluate it negatively, or disregard it.
  87. Analogical reasoning
    Occurs when a consumer uses an existing knowledge base to understand a new situation or object.
  88. Analytical reasoning
    The most complex form of cognitive learning.
  89. Brand equity
    The value consumers assign to a brand above and beyond the functional characteristics of the product.
  90. Brand image
    The schematic memory of a brand.
  91. Brand leverage
    Often termed, family branding, brand extensions, or umbrella branding, refers to marketers capitalizing on brand equity by using an existing brand name for new products.
  92. Classical conditioning
    The process of using an established relationship between a stimulus and response to bring about the learning of the same response to a different stimulus.
  93. Cognitive learning
    Encompasses all the mental activities of humans as they work to solve problems or cope with situations.
  94. Concepts
    Abstractions of reality that capture the meaning of an item in terms of other concepts.
  95. Conditioning
    Learning based on the association of a stimulus (information) and response (behavior or feeling).
  96. Elaborative activities
    The use of previously stores experiences, values, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings to interpret and evaluate information in working memory as well as to add relevant previously stored information.
  97. Episodic memory
    The memory of a sequence of events in which a person participated.
  98. Explicit memory
    Characterized by the conscious recollection of an exposure event.
  99. Extinction
    Or forgetting occurs when the reinforcement for the learned response is withdrawn, the learned response is no longer used, or the individual is no longer reminded of the response.
  100. Flashbulb memory
    Flashbulb memory is acute memory for the circumstances surrounding a surprising and novel event.
  101. High-involvement learning
    A situation in which the consumer is motivated to process or learn the material.
  102. Iconic rote learning
    The association between two or more concepts in the absence of conditioning.
  103. Imagery
    Involves concrete sensory representations of ideas, feelings, and objects.
  104. Implicit memory
    Involves the nonconscious retrieval of previously encountered stimuli.
  105. Learning
    Any change in the content or organization of long-term memory or behavior.
  106. Long-term memory (LTM)
    An unlimited, permanent storage.
  107. Low-involvement learning
    A situation in which the consumer has little or no motivation to process or learn the material.
  108. Maintenance rehearsal
    The continual repetition of a piece of information in order to hold it in current memory for use in problem solving or transferal to long-term memory.
  109. Memory interference
    An effect where consumers have difficulty retrieving a specific piece of information because other related information in memory gets in the way.
  110. Modeling
    Occurs when consumers observe the outcome of others' behaviors and adjust their own accordingly.
  111. Operant conditioning
    Or instrumental learning differs from classical conditioning primarily in the role and timing of reinforcement.
  112. Perceptual mapping
    Takes consumers' perceptions of how similar various brands or products are to each other and relates these perceptions to product attributes.
  113. Product positioning
    A decision by a marketer to try to achieve a defined brand image relative to competition within a market segment.
  114. Product repositioning
    A deliberate decision to significantly alter the way the market views a product.
  115. Pulsing
    frequent (close together) repetitions used any time it is important to produce widespread knowledge of the product rapidly.
  116. Punishment
    Any consequence that decreases the likelihood that a given response will be repeated in the future.
  117. Reinforcement
    Anything that increases the likelihood that a given response will be repeated in the future.
  118. Retrieval failure
    Happens in cognitive learning when information that is available in LTM cannot be accessed, that is, retrieved from LTM into STM. Also called forgetting.
  119. Schema
    A complex web of associations.
  120. Script
    Memory of how an action sequence should occur.
  121. Self-referencing
    Indicates that consumers are relating brand information to themselves.
  122. Semantic memory
    The basic knowledge and feelings an individual has about a concept.
  123. Shaping
    The process of encouraging partial responses leading to the final desired response.
  124. Short-term memory (STM)
    A limited capacity to store information and sensations.
  125. Stimulus discrimination
    The process of learning to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli.
  126. Stimulus generalization
    Often referred to as the rub-off effect, occurs when a response to one stimulus is elicited by a similar but distinct stimulus.
  127. Vicarious learning
    Occurs when consumers observe the outcomes of others' behaviors and adjust their own accordingly.
  128. Approach�approach conflict
    When a consumer who must choose between two attractive alternatives.
  129. Approach�avoidance conflict
    When a consumer facing a purchase choice with both positive and negative consequences.
  130. Avoidance�avoidance conflict
    A choice involving only undesirable outcomes.
  131. Attribution theory
    An approach to understanding the reasons consumers assign particular meanings to the behaviors of others.
  132. Benefit chain
    Where a product or brand is repeatedly shown to a consumer who names all the benefits that possession or use of the product might provide until the consumer can no longer identify additional benefits.
  133. Brand personality
    A set of human characteristics that become associated with a brand.
  134. Consumer ethnocentrism
    Reflects an individual difference in consumers' propensity to be biased against the purchase of foreign products.
  135. Coping
    Coping involves consumer thoughts and behaviors in reaction to a stress-inducing situation designed to reduce stress and achieve more desired positive emotions.
  136. Demand
    The willingness to buy a particular product or service.
  137. Emotion
    Strong, relatively uncontrolled feelings that affect behavior.
  138. Five-Factor Model
    A multitrait theory used to identify five basic traits that are formed by genetics and early learning.
  139. Involvement
    A motivational state caused by consumer perceptions that a product, brand, or advertisement is relevant or interesting.
  140. Laddering
    A new projective technique used to construct a means-end or benefit chain.
  141. Latent motives
    Motives either unknown to the consumer or such that he was reluctant to admit them.
  142. Manifest motives
    Motives that are known and freely admitted.
  143. Maslow's hierarchy of needs
    Based on four premises: (1) All humans acquire a similar set of motives through genetic endowment and social interaction. (2) Some motives are more basic or critical than others. (3) The more basic motives must be satisfied to a minimum level before other motives are activated. (4) As the basic motives become satisfied, more advanced motives come into play.
  144. Means�end chain
    Where a product or brand is repeatedly shown to a consumer who names all the benefits that possession or use of the product might provide until the consumer can no longer identify additional benefits.
  145. Motivation
    The reason for behavior.
  146. Motive
    A construct representing an unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioral response and provides specific direction for that response.
  147. Personality
    An individual's characteristic response tendencies across similar situations.
  148. Prevention-focused motives
    Prevention-focused motives revolve around a desire for safety and security and are related to consumers' sense of duties and obligations.
  149. Projective techniques
    Designed to provide information on latent motives.
  150. Promotion-focused motives
    Promotion-focused motives revolve around a desire for growth and development and are related to consumers' hopes and aspirations.
  151. Regulatory focus theory
    Regulatory focus theory suggests that consumers will react differently depending on which broad set of motives is most salient.