TOUR2000 lecture two

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  1. What is social contact?
    • An interpersonal encounter which occurs between a minimum of two persons
    • Potential to be positive or negative
  2. What two parties can social contact occur between in tourism?
    • Tourist - Host (waiter - guest)
    • Tourist - Tourist (in tour group)
    • Tourist - Potential tourist
    • Tourist - Provider (financial relationship)
    • Host - Host (contiki tours)
    • Host - Provider (travel agencies - hotels)
    • Provider - Potential Tourist (sales perspective)
    • Provider - Provider (airlines - travel agents)
  3. Definition of a tourist
    The activites of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environemtn for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes
  4. Another tourist definition
    • Movement to and staying at destinations
    • Outside the usual environemtn or normal place of residence or work
    • Not taking up permanent residence or employment
    • Temporary and short-term (max stay 1yr)
  5. Definition of a host
    • "Professional Host" - national of visited country and employed in the tourism undustry providing a service to tourists
    • Community in which tourism takes place, independant of direct employment in the tourism industry
  6. Forms of tourist - host contact
    • Purchase of goods and services
    • informal meeting at attraction
    • information exchange
  7. Intercultural tourist-host contact (traditionally and more recently)
    • Traditionally:
    • - tourist => host from host culture
    • - EG japanese tourist => australia => served by australian employee
    • More recently:
    • - tourist => host from non-host culture
    • - EG japanese tourist => australia => served by chinese/australian employee
  8. Intercultural contact in tourism - positive views
    • knowledge and understanding of cultures
    • development of pride in loval cultural assets
    • socialising between tourists and hosts
    • learning languages
    • research - higher contact intensity = longer contact = more likely to be positive
  9. Interculatural contact in tourism - negative views
    • contact is superficial (short periods of time)
    • tourists/hosts perceptions = highly distorted
    • danger of stereotyping
    • culture clash
    • tourist isolation and seperation
    • victimization and harassment
    • exploitation of culture (tourists sold 'authentic' cultural experience)
  10. What are some factors influencing tourist-host contact?
    • Temporal
    • Spatial
    • Communication
    • Cultural
    • Tourism Characteristics
  11. What are temporal and spatial factors?
    • brief, superficial, temporary, non-repetitive
    • asymmetric
    • commercial, formal, requiring friendliness and strong concern for quality by host
    • dependance on opportunity for contact influenced by place
    • attitudes towards tourists/hosts
    • motivation for contact affects interaction
    • perceived costs and benefits
  12. Cultural Factors
    • cultural values
    • cultural attitudes: prejudiced person = less intercultural contact
    • perceptions
    • cultural familiarity and similarity
  13. Tourism Characteristics:
    • type of travel arrangement (eg bus tours - not much interaction, limited time in dest.)
    • role of the culture broker (tour guide - experience with them will affect tourist overall exp.)
    • stage of tourism development, number of tourists
    • existing information
    • type of tourism
  14. Aspects of Cross-cultural interaction (Cronen & Shuter 1983)
    • Verbal and non-verbal behaviour (talking & interacting with locals)
    • Speech acts (gestures perceived as rude/acceptable)
    • Episodes
    • Relationships
    • Life script
    • Cultural patterns
  15. Define tourist satisfaction:
    "..the difference between expectations about a destination and teh experience/perceived performance at the destination"

    • - the greater the disparity between expectations and experience the greater the likelihood of dissatisfaction
    • - satisfaction is achieved when the expectations are met or exceeded
  16. Challenges of achieving satisfaction:
    • Satisfaction is relative
    • Depends on
    • - expectations
    • - personal values and beliefs
    • - importance of outcomes
    • - environment in which the exchange takes place
    • - perceived quality of service
    • Satisfaction is multi-faceted

Card Set Information

TOUR2000 lecture two
2010-10-24 02:00:11
TOUR2000 lec two uq

Intercultural host-guest interactions
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