Procedures 3 final test
Card Set Information
Procedures 3 final test
final test procedures
for RAD test
Medical ultrasound uses high frequency sound waves in the range between____and____?
2 and 15
Which generation of ultrasound unit used a serioes of blips on a monitor for display?
Which generation of ultrasound unit introduced the gray scale?
What is meant by real time dynamic ultrasound?
allows for physicians and sonographers to view the anatomy during a scan
Which type of ultrasound unit is used to examine the structure and behavior of flowing blood?
color flow doppler
What major improvement was offered by the new high definition digital ultrasound systems?
higher resolution and low penetration *signific increase dynamic range-software with 3D and 4D images
What is the purpose or function of the transducer?
converts energy from 1 form to another=electrical to sound
Why is gell applied to the skin during an ultrasound exam?
gives easy movement and makes sure no air is trapped
What is meant by the term echo?
sound waves that are reflected by internal structure back to the transducer by a tissue barrier
What type of material creates the high frequency sound waves?
What physical principle is applied when the transducer produces a sound wave?
pie 20 electric effect
what is the role of the sonographyer?
more tech dependent must know anatomy=produce diagnostic quality images
what structures are commonly examined with ultrasound?
liver, gallbladder, heart, breast, eye, uterus, pancrease
Name 2 barriers to ultrasound?
bone and air filled structure
what is teh advantage of using ultrasound for studies of the muscoloskeletal system over MRI?
less expensive=shows real time
What is meant by the term anechoic?
an anatomic structure or region of thebody that does not produce echos
what causes internal echoes?
vascular and duct structure with it an organ
How is ultrasound used as an adjunct to mammography?
differentiate between a cystic and solid mass
What is color flow doppler used for?
measrue velocity of blood flow with in a vessel look at DVT of the leg
T/F: ultrasound can be done as a primary education?
Radiogarph examination of the mammary gland or breast is called?
The american cancer society recommends that women age ____ and over should have a yearly screening mammogram?
What is the incidence of breast cancer among american women?
What is the name of the act whose purpose is to ensure hight quality mammography?
MQSA-mammo quality standards act
the ideal kvp for mammo is between ___ and ___ kvp?
25 - 28
Name the target material used in mammography tubes?
How does a mammo mahcine make use of the anode heel effect?
strongest x-rays are at the chest wall
List 2 functions of compression during mammography?
decrease thickness-less tech, less dose, less superimposition, better image
the breast has____ inherent subject contrast?
mammo relies on ___contrast film?
_______is used to enlarge specific areas to see small lesions or microcalcifications?
What are the 2 basic projections performed for screening mammograpms?
cranial caudal or MLO
What type of pathology is best diagnosed with ultrasound of the breast
What positioning technique is used with implants?
eckland method- breast forward and implant back
List 2 advantages of digital mammograpy over conventional film screen systems?
List the risk factors for getting breast cancer. which of these carries the highest risk?
women, over 40, family history, late/early menstration
Where are the majority of all breast cancers located within the breast?
upper outer quadrant
why is radiation therapy used?
to reduce cancer
What fraction of cancer patients will receive radiation therapy as part of their treatment?
T/F: radiation therapy is considered painful?
What are some acute side affects?
Hairloss, hearing problems. headaches
What should you do after care of treatment?
rest, eat a balanced diet
List and explain the 2 types of radiation treatment?
brachytherapy-internal radiation therapy
Telatherapy- external radiation therapy
List teh 3 sources of external beam radiation
x-ray unit, cobalt 60 gamma ray unit, linear excellerator
Which source is most commonly used today?
linear accelerators produce______ to treat shallow cancers and ____ to treat deep cancers?
electrons ; higer energy x-rays
HOw is linear accelerator able to provde both types of treatment?
bc x-rays hit the target and produce electrons
what is the purpose of radiation therapy simulation?
to get the exact treatment everytime
What is a gamma knife?
used in surgey, high dose to one area of tumor in brain surgery
Permanent brachytherapy is knows as_______.
What are the side effets of radiation therapy?
nausea, hair loss in treament area, skin reddness.
What is palliative radiation therapy?
when we know it wont cure but more to relieve symptoms
Why would a patient be required to have radiation therapy after the tumor was removed?
to make sure there was no residual tumors.
List the 4 members of radiation oncology team and their responsibilites?
medical radiatoin physicist
radiation oncology nurse
What additional qualifications are necessary for a radiologic technologist to become a radiation therapist?
you can be a RT first but you do not need to be.
Cells responsible for new bone formation are called____ and cells that help break down old bone are called______?
The purpose of bone densitometry is to ____________.
ascess bone mineral density to diagnose osteoporosis
Central or axial analysis includes bone density measurements of the________and_________.
L spine and prox femur
Peripheral site analysis includes bone density measuremtns of the____,____,____,____,or_____
wirst, finger, heel, forarm, or lower leg
What is osteoporosis?
increase absorpton of bone= low bone mass
who does osptoporosis primarily affect?
post menopausal women
How is ostoporosis treated?
drugs (boniva, calcium substances, anti reabsorptive drugs
what are the risk factors for osteoporosis
family history, premature menopaus, low physical activity, low calcium, smoking, drinking
list 3 most common types of bone densitometry methods?
dexa, qct, q ultrasound
what is the purpose of the dual energy x-ray source used to DXA scanning?
high and low x-ray energy to max attenuation differences in bone and soft tissue
What area of anatomy is analyzed during a central/axial site DXA scan and what is patient positioning?
just like an AP L-spine internal rotation of femur 15 - 20 degrees
what is the different between T score and Z score?
T Score- compares young age healthy individuals most commonly 30 years old
Z Score- age matched
What are some patient conditions that affect the accuracy of the result of DXA scanning?
implant, prosthesis, anatomic malformations. spondilolisthesis, scoliosis, kyphosis