Chp. 5 Science Vocabulary

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johnsons
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43428
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Chp. 5 Science Vocabulary
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2010-10-19 15:49:20
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Mrs Redding\' Vocabulary
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Vocabulary Words for Chapter 5
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  1. Who was Lavoisier?
    He grouped elements into categories in 1789: metals, nonmetals, gases, and earths
  2. What did Medeleev do in the 1860?
    He developed a strategy for organizing the elements that was modeled after a version of the game of solitaire.
  3. periodic table
    an arrangement of elements in columns, based on a set of properties that repeat from row to row
  4. Why did Mendeleev leave blank spots on the peirodic table?
    He used the spaces in the periodic table to predict the differences of undiscovered elements.
  5. What is a period?
    each row in the periodic table
  6. What was discovered before protons were discovered?
    Mendeleev discovered the periodic table
  7. What predicted that Mendeleev's predictions were acurate?
    The actual properties of the new elements
  8. What is a group?
    each column on the periodic table
  9. What is the periodic law?
    the pattern of repeating properties
  10. What is listed on the periodic table for each element?
    the atomic number, the element name, element symbol, atomic mass #
  11. What is an atomic mass unit?
    as 1/2 th emass of a carbon- 12 atom
  12. What is atomic mass?
    a value that depends on the amount of an element's isotopes in nature and the masses of those isotopes.
  13. What are three ways to classify elements?
    • 1. solids, liquids, or gases
    • 2. occur naturally and those that don't occur in nature
    • 3. based on general properties
  14. What are metals?
    elements that are good conductors of electric current and heat
  15. What are nonmetals?
    elements that are poor conductors of electricity
  16. What are transition metals?
    elements that form a bridge between the elements on the left and right sides of the periodic table
  17. What are metalloids?
    elements with properties between those of metals and nonmetals
  18. What is a valence electron?
    An electron that is in the highest occupied energy level of an atom
  19. What are the Alkali metals?
    • Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, Francium
    • Have a single valence electron
    • are extremely reactive
    • found in nature only in compounds
  20. What are Alkaline earth metals?
    • Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium, Radium
    • have two valence electrons
    • harder than metals in Group 1A
    • the differences are shown by how they react to water
  21. Describe magnesium.
    • plays a key role in how plants use sunlight to produce sugar
    • can be strong as steel but much lighter when mixed with other metals
  22. Describe calcium.
    • keeps bones and teeth strong
    • calcium carbonate is the main ingredient of chalk
    • calcium sulfate is used to make casts
  23. What does the Boron family contain?
    • Boron
    • Aluminum
    • Gallium
    • Indium
    • Thallium
    • has 3 valence electrons
    • Aluminum is the most abundant
  24. What is in the Carbon family?
    • Carbon
    • Silicon
    • Germanium
    • Tin
    • Lead
    • Have 4 valence electrons
  25. What is carbon?
    • life on Earth would not exist without carbon
    • Most compounds in your body contain carbon except water
    • Carbon compounds control reactions that occur in the cells of your body
  26. What is silicon
    the 2nd most abundant element in Earth's crust and is found in clay used to make pottery
  27. What is in the nitogen group?
    • Nitrogen
    • Phosphorus
    • Arsenic
    • Antimony
    • Bismuth
    • have 5 valence electrons
    • the most important elements are nitrogen and phosphorus
  28. What is in the oxygen family?
    • oxygen
    • sulfur
    • selenium
    • tellurium
    • polonium
    • have 6 valence electrons
  29. Describe oxygen.
    • the most abundant element in the earth's crust
    • used to release the energy stored in food
    • occurs in the form of ozone
  30. Describe sulfur.
    main use is in the production of sulfuric acid, which is used to make fertilizer
  31. Describe sulfur.
    main use is in the production of sulfuric acid, which is used to make fertilizer

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