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- Define the problem and goal
- Assess/analyze the situation
- Treat (develop an intervention strategy to resolve the problem)
- Evaluate the effectiveness of consultation
D (Step 1 in the DATE Model)
- Define the problem and goal (using the ORS and/or other interviewing methods, obtain a clear, behavioral description of the key problem and goal from the consultee’s perspective): Problem: Of all the concerns you’ve
- mentioned, which one should we begin with? What does it look like? Who does what? If I was a fly on the wall, what would I see? Give me a play by play description as if we were watching a videotape. Goal: Why is this important to you? What will be different when your mark on the ORS moves up a notch or two on this scale?; If a score of 10 was “where you want things to be” and 1 is “where things are right now,” what would a 1.5 or 2 look like? What will be the first small sign that things are moving in the right direction? If we videotaped this student being “less depressed,” what would s/he be doing instead (for descriptions stated in the negative as the reduction or “absence” of the problem); How are we going to know when this problem is solved?
A (Step 2 in the DATE Model)
- Assess/analyze the situation by exploring relevant circumstances and factors, which may include:
- a) Solution attempts: What have you/others already tried? How did it work? How have you kept things from getting worse? What have you thought about but haven’t yet tried? How willing are you to try something pretty different to improve things?
- b) Environmental/situational factors associated with the problem and exceptions—Problem: When/where
- does it usually happen? What’s going on right before it happens? What happens right after? Who’s around? How do they respond? Exceptions: When is the problem absent or less noticeable? Tell me about a recent time
- when you and this student got along a little better than usual. What was different about that time? (Same when/where/who’s around questions as above); What will it take for this to happen more often?
- c) Functional assessment considerations: What purpose/function might the problem behavior serve for the child/student?
- d) Consultee’s theory: What do you think is causing the problem? What do you think will help improve things?
- e) Resource analysis: What available resources might be useful in resolving the problem? This includes intangible
- resources (e.g., consultee’s compassion, experience, persistence, willingness to try new strategies); parent involvement; child characteristics that could be utilized in developing intervention strategies such as special
- interests, talents, hobbies, academic strengths) and tangible resources (e.g., parents, older sibling, large classroom, team-teaching arrangement; best friend; teacher has access to money and other tangible
- reinforcers that could be used as incentives/rewards for the student’s behavioral improvements at school, etc.)
T (Step 3 in the DATE Model)
- Treat (develop an intervention strategy to resolve theproblem)
- a) Specify intervention details: Clarify the specifics on how the intervention will be implemented (treatment/intervention integrity), when and where it will be implemented, etc.
- b) Specify intervention responsibilities: Clarify who will be responsible for implementing the intervention (or different aspects of the intervention)
E (Step 4 in the DATE Model)
Evaluate the effectiveness of consultation using a combination of: (a) scaling questions (e.g., “On a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being ‘the worst it could be,’ and 10 being ‘the best it could be,’ where would you rate your behavior in math class during the past week?”), (b) formal and informal rating scales (e.g., ORS, behavior rating scales, or other scales relevant to the problem and goal), permanent products (e.g., grade reports, classroom work samples, attendance/discipline records), and behavioral observations [e.g., comparison of the average number of off-task behaviors during 10-minute periods of independent work time before consultation (baseline phase) and after consultation (intervention phase).
- *If little or no progress is indicated, recycle through Steps 2 through 4 above. If satisfactory progress is indicated, empower progress by congratulating/complimenting the consultee and developing a plan to maintain progress and follow-up as needed (e.g., What will it take to continue what you’re doing in order to keep things moving in the right direction?; Where should we go from here?)
- Use SRS at the end of each consultation session, and adjust your
- approach as needed.