Ø Initiative vs. guilt (Age 4-5) If parents are supportive of child showing iniative, cx will develop purpose. If not, they’ll develop guilt (inhibition)
Ø Industry vs. inferiority (6-12) support=competence; no support=inferiority
Ø Identity vs. role confusion (13-19) attempt to develop identity (if not, identity crisis); resolution=fidelity (able to hang with many different people) (if not, identity diffusion)
Piaget's theory of cognitive development
Ø Childhood attachment styles:
Securely attached: babies use caregiver as secure base from which to explore from. They mildly protest when caregiver leaves and are happy to see them return. Ø Insecure avoidant: show insecurity by avoiding mother and do not show distress if caregiver leaves and usually do not reestablish connection up their return. Ø Insecure resistant: Often cling to caregiver and then resist by fighting closeness, often cry loudly when caregiver leaves and resist comfort upon return. Ø Insecure disorganized: Disoriented and appear dazed and confused and fearful in strange situations. They also show resistance and avoidance around the caregiver.
Ø Adolescent attachment styles:
Dismissing-avoidant attachment: insecure/teen deemphasizes importance of attachment. Ø Preoccupied-ambivalent attachment: insecure/hyper tuned to attachment experiences, Ø Unresolved-disorganized attachment: insecure/unusually high level of fear/disoriented
Ø Adult attachment styles:
Secure: positive views of relationships; easy to get close to others Ø Avoidant: Hesitant about getting involved/distant Ø Anxious: Demand closenss, less trusting, more emotional, jealous, & possessive
the most commonly used consultation model in SP
Client Centered Consultation
Ø Chane Pie-Common factors of change:
1. Client factors (40%), 2. Therapeutic relationship (30%)-strongest predictor of outcome, 3. Hope (15%), 4. Therapeutic model (15%)
Judgements that consumers make about an intervention which greatly influences whether or not they are likely to implement it. (Severity of problem, time efficiency of treatment, strength of treatment, and jargon used by consultant all influence acceptability).
The degree to which an intervention is implemented as it was intended.
IQ of 70 or below
onset before 18
1. sensorimotor (birth-2) experience teh world through their senses
2. preoperational (2-7) capacity for symbolic thought but not logical problem solving