Zoology Lecture 7

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Zoology Lecture 7
2010-10-19 21:22:35

Zoology Lecture 7
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  1. Feeding Currents - just saying
  2. How do the vast majority of sponges get food?
    By filter feeding
  3. Do all choanocytes beat their flagella in the same direction? do they always beat their flagella?
    Choanocytes beat their flagella in the same direction. Only when the current is low or absent in the water.
  4. How is coordiantion of the choanocytes obtained?
    by entrainment
  5. Define viscous entrainment in relation to sponges
    Viscous entrainment - Flowing fluid will tend to pull the fluid out of any hole (both ostia and oscula) because of viscoisty.
  6. When flowing fluid meets a constriction the _______ drops and the _______ speeds up
    • pressure
    • fluid
  7. Pressure drop can creates a ______ that will tend to _______ fluid out of an _______.
    • suction
    • pull
    • opening.
  8. What water speed would we expect to find tall/long sponges in?
    Low flow
  9. What flow would we expect to find short sponges in
    High flow
  10. Particles larger than ___ µm cannot pass through _____ and_______ may phagocytosis them.
    • 50
    • ostia
    • pinacocytes
  11. Particles ____ ≥ 50 µm are trapped in ___ and are consumed by pinacocytes or _______.
    • 0.5
    • ostia
    • archeocytes
  12. Smaller particles ≥ 0.5 µm (e.g., bacteria) are trapped in the _____ and are consumed by the ______ and account of 80% of total consumption.
    • collars
    • choanocytes
  13. Digestion is in _______ vacuoles
  14. ________ transport food to cells that do not directly digest food.
  15. Some sponges use _______ endosymbionts for their nutrition
  16. Fresh water forms have _________ in archeocytes
    green algae
  17. Marine ones have _______ or __________ to aid in digestion
    • cyanobacteria
    • dinoflagellates
  18. Where would you expect to find species of carniverous sponges
    in areas where filter feeding is relativly unsuccessful
  19. Can some sponges move?
    Yes at 4 mm per day
  20. What physical feature do sponges share with protozoans in regards to water
    CV contractle vacules to help osmoregulate
  21. Where are the CV's found in sponges
    in the pinacocytes
  22. Asexual reproduction - just saying
  23. How are archecytes related to asexual reproduction
    Archeocytes –totipotent , sponge fragments just need a certain number of those archeocytes to regenerate
  24. What is more common. Fragmentation or budding?
  25. Do sponges have an immune system?
    A primitive one yes
  26. Do sponges produce gemmules? what are gemmules
    yes. gemmules are the resting stage capable of resitng desication
  27. What are two ways sponges produce spermatogonia and hence spermies
    • 1. choanocyte cells loose flagela and collars and become speratangia
    • 2. archeocytes become sperm mother cells that produce spermatangia
  28. Which cell generally forms the oocyte
    usually archeocytes
  29. How does the archecyte gain in size
    by moving through the mesophyl engulfing other cells
  30. Where are the released sperm released from
    the sperm are drawn into the chanocyte chamber where they are taken up by chaynocytes
  31. Where does embryogeniss occur?
    Typicaly occurs in the parents body
  32. what type of cleave is seen in sponges
    Typically holoblastic and radial
  33. quick definition of parenchymula
    The flagellate larva of calcinean sponges in which there is a cavity filled with gelatinous connective tissue.