nutrition

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rreavis
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43455
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nutrition
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2010-10-28 23:51:10
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equine nutrition
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equine nutrition
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  1. Horses are grazing animals
    • evolved from plains
    • graze in cycles throughout the day as a moving herd
    • digestive tract best suited for forage diet
    • small meals multiple times a day
    • eat grasses that change with seasons throughout year
  2. DOmestication
    • stall confinement
    • meal feeding
    • high amounts of concentrates (corn, oats)
  3. Equine managment today has higher risk of health issues
    • colic
    • muscle-associated disease
    • laminitis (hoof)
  4. Hindgut fermentors
    • cecum
    • large colon
    • small colon
    • rectum
  5. monogastric herbivore
    • simple stomach - cant utilize forage (high fiber)
    • Hindgut - extensive fermentation after primary sites of digestion and absorption, digest forage as primary source of nutrition
  6. compared to human GI tract
    • same except ascending colon is for fermentation
    • appendix = cecum
  7. amount of digestion and absorption of nutrients
    • 40% forgut
    • 60% hindgut (fermentation)
  8. route of digesta
    • stomach, duodenum, jejunum (same as most animals)
    • Ileum (starts to change to fermentation)
    • ileocecal Valve
    • Cecum (start of fermentation)
    • cecocolic orifice
    • Right ventral colon
    • sternal flexure
    • Left ventral colon
    • pelvic flexure
    • Left dorsal colon
    • diaphragmatic flexure
    • Right dorsal colon
    • Transverse colon
    • Small colon
    • Rectum
  9. Duodenum
    • short
    • 3-7 ft
    • dorsal
    • on right side and goes behind right kidney
  10. Jejunum
    • 70 ft
    • cranial mesenteric artery
    • dorsal body wall mesenteric connects
  11. Ileum
    • avascular band of tissue continues with dorsal band on cecum
    • iliocecal orifice to cecum
  12. Cecum
    • 1st part of fermentation
    • caudal abdomen
    • transistion time slows down for better absorption
    • primary site of water absorption
    • holds 30 L of fluid (more w/ disease) ~ 60 lbs
    • cecocolic junction
  13. rt arm example
    • forward movement to diaphragm
    • around rt ventral colon
    • sternal flexure on bottom
    • left ventral colon (narrows) and goes up
    • pelvic flexure
    • back toward diaphragm
    • left dorsal colon
    • diaphragmatic flexure (on right)
    • rt dorsal colon
  14. conversion
    1L ~ 1kg

    1kg ~ 2.2 lb
  15. Transverse colon
    • very short <1 meter
    • little nutrient effects
    • dorsal
  16. Descending colon
    • makes feces shape
    • "apples"
  17. species differences
    • Small colon = descending colon
    • Large colon = ascending only
  18. Foregut
    • digestion and absorption of non-fiberous feed ingredients
    • protein
    • fat
    • sugar/starch (non structural carbs)
    • water
    • vit/minerals
    • stomach
    • small intestine
  19. Hindgut
    • digestion and fermentation of fibrous feed ingredients
    • structural carbs
    • cellulose
    • hemicellulose
    • Larger intestine
    • cecum/large colon
    • small colon/rectum
  20. starch digestion
    8% in stomach and Small intestine
  21. Amino acids, fat, vitamins, and mineral
    • 30%
    • digested and absorbed in small intestine
  22. Fiber digestion
    • 60%
    • cecum and colon
  23. Lips
    • prehension (soft)
    • bring food to mouth
    • lips when eating from a manger
    • teeth when grazing
    • lips form suction for drinking water
    • lots of sensation
  24. Tongue
    • propulsion of feed bolus to pharynx to be swalloed
    • cranial nerve XII
    • Hypoglossal
  25. Teeth
    • chew - lateral excursion (grind) on occlusal surface
    • increases surface area
    • chew continuosly (up to 60,000 times a day)
    • allow enzymes to begin digestion
  26. Hypsodont Teeth
    • 4 types
    • Incisors - cutting 6 uppen and 6 lower
    • Canine - tearing/fighting (males only) 2 upper and 2 lower
    • Wolf teeth - on top before premolars, spikey, can be removed premolar 1
    • Premolars - grind, 6 upper 6 lower
    • Molars - grind, 6 uppen 6 lower
    • grow entire life
    • bottom jaw is more narrow
  27. points on teeth
    • cause problems
    • malnutrition
    • not able to grind feed properly
  28. floating
    • routine care
    • remove sharp points
  29. poor dental health
    • Quidding - dropping feed
    • abnormal head postion during chewing
    • loss of condition
    • Colic
  30. Salivary glands
    • parotid - largest
    • submaxillary gland
    • sublingual gland
    • moisten feed, lubrication, amylase, bicarbonate (buffer for stomach acid)
  31. Saliva
    • < 40 L per day ~ 10 gallons
    • flow rate affected by - parasympathetic, Increase then increase flow (more saliva
    • Sympathetic - increase then decrease in flow
  32. esophagus
    • swallowing = degluttion
    • requires intensive neurological coordination
    • transport of food from mouth to stomach
    • peristaltic contractions
    • muscular tubular organ
    • Proximal 2/3 - straited m.
    • Distal 1/3 - smooth m
    • propulsion of food bolus
  33. "Choked"
    wad of feed stuck in esophagus
  34. esophageal sphincters
    • upper esophageal sphincter - circopharyngeus m.
    • lower esophageal formed from distal esophageal musculature
    • esophagus obliquely enters stomach (can kink)
  35. Esophagus problems
    • stomack can cause esophagus to kink
    • lots of tone in lower esophagus
    • horse very rarely vomits and if so is a sign of morbitity
    • stomach will rupture before vomiting
  36. Stomach
    • 8-12 L : small volume b/c small infrequent meals
    • rapid gastric emptying (2-12hr) b/c of forage diet
    • similar to human stomach
  37. function of stomach
    • reservoir for controlled release of digesta to SI
    • Mix/mechanical break down of feed (hydrolytic digestion by acid and enzymes)
    • HCl- parietal cells, acetlycholine + gastrin + histamine 2 receptors = all have to be bond to parietal cell to produce HCl
    • gastrin (g-cells) also in pancreas and duodenum
    • pepsinogin (chief cells)protein break down
    • HCl - makes low pH, bacterialcidal
  38. Anatomy of stomach
    • cardiac sphincter
    • squamous portion
    • margo plicatus
    • glandular portion and fundic region
    • pyloric spincter and outflow
    • greater and lesser curvature
  39. margo plicatus
    separates top squamous from bottom glandular
  40. Feed bolus
    • in pyloric region
    • protects squamous epithelium from exopsure to HCl and bile acids
    • prevents HCl from splashing up on to squamous mucosa in nonglandular region
  41. greature curvature
    ruptures b/c weakest when distended
  42. Glandular mucosa defense against acid
    • mucus barrier bilaryer
    • bicarbonate secretion
    • rapid regeneration and repair
    • reflux of duodenal secretions (from common bile duct, pancreas/hepatocytes) neutralizes HCl in stomach
  43. Small intestine
    • duoenum + jejunum + ileum
    • 30 % of GIT
    • 70 ft
    • 40 - 50 L
    • 3-4 hr for transit
  44. duodenum
    • common bile duct - continuous release in horses
    • NO gallbladder
  45. Small Intestine
    • primary site of digestion and absorption of protein, fat, vitamins and minerals
    • CHO (sugars, starch, non structural), limited digestive capacity b/c not enough amylase
    • * to much non structural changes microb pop = COLIC
  46. Large meals
    • promotes rapid transit to cecum
    • incomplete pre-cecal digestion = COLIC
  47. Cecum
    • 30 L
    • slow rate of passage
    • initiation of fermentation
    • bacterial, protozoa, fungi
    • microb health determined by diet
    • microb determine GI health
    • 50 % of forage
  48. Microbial fermentation
    • VFA - Metabolized for energy - liver for further breakdown
    • Gas - waste energy
    • B-vitamins
    • vitamin K
  49. high lactic acid
    lowers pH = COLIC
  50. Fermentation of Cellulose
    • ultra-abundant
    • easy to obtain
    • plant cell wall and fiber high in energy
    • Cellulase - only found in bacteria and some protozoans and is needed for cellulose break down
    • indigestible by mammalian digestive enzymes
  51. Fermentation digestion
    • mammals have little capacity of utilization of fiber
    • fermentation is related to the fraction of total digesta contained in fermentative compartments of the GI tract
    • horse - cecum, mainly colon and rectum
    • Cattle and sheep - mainly reticulum
  52. Large Colon
    • additional site of microbial fermentation
    • primary site of water absorption (cecum also)
    • microbial production of vit B and Vit K
  53. Transverse colon
    • very little significance
    • very short time
  54. Small Colon
    • absorbs water
    • creats fecal ball "road apples"
    • rectum stores and expels feces
  55. Balanced diet
    • water
    • energy - fiber + non structural CHO + fat
    • protein
    • vitamins
    • minerals
  56. equine nutrition
    • feed good quality hay/ pasture, water and a trace mineral salt block
    • meets most requirements
    • NRC - book at 6th edition, new info on equine nutrition
  57. water
    • 50 ml/kg/day
    • > 6 gallons per day

    • average horse 500 kg
    • 500 kg x 50 ml/kg = 25,000l/day
    • 25,000ml = 25 L per day
    • 1 L = 1 quart
    • 4 quarts = 1 gallon
  58. water
    • maintenance
    • replace insensible - sweat, feces, urine, lungs (happens no matter what horse is doing)
    • daily metabolic processes
    • periprandial drinking
    • primary site of water absorption - cecum, large and small colon
  59. water intake
    • varies with environmental conditions, workload, diet, lactation
    • increase fiber increase water intake
    • always provide fresh, clean, potable water
    • make sure not frozen - use proper working ehat pump if necessary
  60. encourage water consumption
    • provide electrolytes
    • oral electrolyte paste
    • trace mineral salt block
    • offer warm water in winter months
    • sweat too much - sweat is hyperontic to plasma, causes decrease in electrolytes
    • always provide plain water in addition
  61. energy
    • maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation, work
    • excess energy causes - developmental orthpedic disease
    • equine metabolic syndrome (type II diabetes)
    • laminitis
    • obesity
    • reduced performance
    • colic
  62. energy units - digestible energy
    • calorie - 1 g of water to 1 degree Celsius
    • kilocal - 1000 cals
    • Megacal - 1000 kcals
  63. maintenance
    • 16 Mcal/day
    • rest, no work, or use
  64. light work
    • 20 Mcal/day
    • pleaseure, trail
  65. Moderate work
    • 25 Mcal/day
    • longer, intense training, ranch work
  66. heavy work
    • >30 Mcal/day
    • heavy work, racing, lactation
  67. energy = fiber + CHO + fat
    • fiber, basic for all equine diets
    • structural cabs ~ forage feed
  68. fiber = forage
    • structural CHO
    • Fermentable CHO - beta 1-4 linkages (glucose linkages, used by microbes)
    • common forages - hay (legumes, grasses) pasture forage
    • >50 % equine diet should come from forage feeds
    • Ensures GI Health
    • non structural - oligosaccarhides also need fermentation
  69. forage feeds
    • digestion of plant cell wall - cellulose and hemicellulose
    • requires microbe fermentation - enzyme cellulase, pH 6.5
    • fermenation - large intestine
    • efficient, slow, time consuming
    • Small intestine tract - some fermentation
  70. good microbes
    • need correct pH 6.5
    • time
  71. fiber = energy
    • volatile fatty acids
    • primary source of energy
    • 30 - 70 % of daily energy
  72. Equine volatile fatty acids
    • produced in cecum/arge colon - absorbed stright into blood stream
    • acetate - immediate energy, decreases when increase in grain feed
    • proprionate - gluconeogenesis(use other source to produce glucose) in liver, increase proprionate w/ grain feed,
    • Butyrate
  73. Absorption of VFA
    • across intestinal wall - passive down pH gradient as free acids
    • directly into the portal blood - liver to muscle
    • rate of absorption related to molecular weight - acetate, proprionate, butyrate
    • absorption maintains intestinal pH
    • related to salt and water movement
  74. meal feeding of horses
    to much VFA, water into GIT decreases blood fluid, increase in renin production
  75. VFA
    • slow release for sustained energy - maintenance requirments
    • if additional energy is needed - feed non structural CHO and fat
  76. non structural CHO
    • simple sugars - alpha 1-4, monosaccharides, polysaccharides (amylase)
    • pancreas - brush border, enzymatic hydrolysis of CHO, amylase, sucrase, lactase, to duobenum by common bile duct
    • digestion begins in stomach - SI, 50 to 70% is digested
  77. Amylase
    • primary starch digestion
    • horse - limited production
    • feed concentrates = colic b/c not enought amylase to digest
    • non digested CHO goes to hind gut cecum
  78. CHO non strucutral
    • oats, corn, molasses
    • sweet feed 50% non structural CHO
  79. Concentrates = colic
    • incomplete pre-cecal digestion (b/c of lack of amylase to digest)
    • bacillus, lactobacillus, streptococcus - ferment starch, produce lactic acid, alters pH (decrease), injures mucosa, dysmotility
    • gas distention of cecum/colon = colic
    • normal microbes die - b/c of low pH, endotoxic shock (leads to laminitis), gas production
    • burned mucosa from toxins, toxins into blood, leads to laminitis,
    • some toxins from normal bacteria death - liver can handle
    • to much bad bacteria - decrease pH, bad microbes work better, good die off in great quanitities, produce lots of toxins, leads to toxic shock, laminitis
  80. prevent pre-cecal digestions
    • feed NSC separatly from forage
    • consider source of starch
    • decrease amount of starch intake/meal/day
    • processing of starch - oats highly digestible, corn requires processing to increase digestion (pop), grinding/popping/heat treatment(oats mainly)
    • individual digestive variability - amount of amylase depends on each individual horse
    • 5 lb of grain a day, increase colic by 6 times
    • need 2 g per kg of body weight
  81. NSC
    • rapid energy for high energy required horses
    • ex - underweight "hard keepers"
  82. NSC
    • avoid in certain disease states
    • cushings - long shaggy coat, hyperglycemic
    • equine metabolic syndrome
    • laminitis - rock back onto hind quarters, 60% of body weight is usually on front limbs
  83. excess energy
    • "hot horse" - difficult to handle
    • weight gain
    • young horses - developmental orthopedic disease (endocrine problem)
  84. structural CHO
    • roughages
    • low stratch
    • high fiber
    • low digestible energy
  85. nonstarch CHO
    • grains
    • high starch
    • low fiber
    • high digestible energy
  86. Glycemic index
    • CHO on blood glucose
    • high glycemic feeds - CHO break down quickly during digestion, releasing glucose rapidly into circulation
    • Low glycemic feeds - CHO break down more slowly, releaseing glucose gradually into blood
  87. Diabetes II in equine
    • hypoglycemic
    • need low glycemic feed
    • lower peaks of glucose absortion
  88. fat
    • <2-3% fat/day
    • good for energy w/o CHO overload
    • fat = high energy density (2.25 to 1 CHO)
    • triglycerides = 3 FFA + glycerol back bone
  89. fat digestion
    • lipolysis
    • 100% absorption in SI tract by micelle (absorbed by brush border), w/in enterocytes, lipids form chylomicrons, travel through lymph
    • bile acids - from hepatobiliary tract, released from common bile duct into duodenum, coat TG, pancreatic lipases surround TG (cleave TG = glycerol + FFA)
  90. fat in liver
    • depends on energy requirments
    • TCA - ATP
    • excess - esterified back to TG, stored at FA hepatocytes, limited space
    • glycerol for gluconeogenesis
    • made into ketone bodies
    • made into very low density lipoproteins
    • VLDL (very low) - adipose tissue, equine very efficient at making

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