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2010-10-19 22:10:10

Biology Chapter 4
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  1. Antibiotics
    Drugs that kill or disable infectious deceases.

The drug binds to Ribosomes
  2. Organisms
    • - Single celled - Prokaryotes, protists
    • - Multi-celled - Plants, animals, and most fungi
  3. Light Microscope (LM)
    It is an increase in the object's apparent size compared with its actual size.
  4. Resolving Power
    Clarify the magnified image
  5. Prokaryotic Cells
    Bacteria and Archaea
  6. - Smaller
    • - Lack internal structures
    • - surrounded my membrane
    • - Lack nucleus
  7. Eukaryotic cells
    Protists, plants, fungi, and animals
  8. Plasma Membrane
    Thin outer membrane, which regulates the flow of traffic of molecules between the cell and its surroundings.

Made mostly of Phospholipids and Proteins.

    Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic.
  9. Ribosomes
    Tiny structures that build/synthesize proteins according to instructions from the DNA


    They do their job in Cytoplasm.

    Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic.
  10. Cytoplasm
    The entire region of cell between the nucleus and plasma membrane.

  11. Chloroplast
    Only in Plant cells. 

An organelle that converts light energy into food energy.
  12. Cell Walls
    Made of Cellulose fibers.

Only in Eukaryotic Plant cells.
  13. Animal Cells
    • Extracellular matrix - Sticky coat that holds cells together.

    • Cell junctions - Connects to other cells.
  14. Structure and Function of the Nucleus
    • The Nucleus is bordered by the Nuclear Envelope (A double Membrane, which is similar to the plasma membrane).
    • The nucleus holds DNA.
  15. DNA
    DNA and associated proteins create fibers called Chromatin.

    A lot of Chromatins together create a Chromosome.
  16. Nucleolus
    Where Ribosomes are made.

    Inside Nucleus.
  17. The Endomembrane System
    • - Rough ER
    • - Smooth ER
    • - Golgi Apparatus
    • - Lysosomes
    • - Vacuoles
  18. Rough ER
    • Is rough, because of the Ribosomes on the outside.
    • These Ribosomes produce membrane protein and secretory proteins.

    Is located in Cytoplasm.

    Some products manufactured by Rough ER are dispatched to other locations in the cell via "Transport Vesicles".
  19. Smooth ER
    • Has Many Functions:
    • - Synthesis of lipids, including steroids.
    • - Detoxify liver cells.
  20. Golgi Apparatus
    Works with ER to refine, store, receive, and distribute chemical products in the cell.
  21. Lysosomes
    A sac of digestive enzymes that break down large molecules, such as proteins, polysaccharides, fats, and nucleic acids. They also fight Bacteria.

    They also "pack" away nutrients in Food vacuoles.

    They are found only in Animals!
  22. Vacuoles
    Sacs that bud from the ER, Golgi, or Plasma membrane.

    The central vacuole of a plant cell stores organic nutrients.
  23. Chloroplasts
    In photosynthesis cells of plants and algae. Works in the Photosynthesis process.
  24. Mitochondria
    Cellular respiration. It takes Sugar and other food and creates a chemical energy called ATP. The inner part is called Cristae.
  25. Cilia and Flagella
    Used for movement.

    Only in Eukaryotic.