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What regulations apply concerning the operation of an aircraft that has had alterations or repairs which may have substantially affected its operation in flight?
No passengers are allowed to be carried in a aircraft that has undergone alterations unless an appropriately rated pilot (private pilot at the minimum) has:
made operation check of maintenance performed or alterations made
flies the aircraft
logs the flight in aircraft records
What is an Airworthiness Certificate and how long does it remain valid?
1. After meeting the requirements of 14CFR and is found safe for operations the FAA will isse the Airworthiness Certificate
2. must meet the requirements of the oringinal certificate
3. must be displayed in the aircraft for crew and passengers to see
- 4. transferred when the aircaft is sold
- a. except to a foreign purchaser
5. remains in effect as long as the aircraft receives the required maintenance and is prperly registered in the United States
Can a pilot conduct a flight operation in an aircraft with known inoperative equipment?
Yes, under specific conditions. 14 CFR Part 91 describes acceptable methods for operation:
Minimum equipment list 91.213 for aircrafts
Operation of aircraft without MEL under 14 CFR 91.213
What are Minimum Equipment Lists?
- 1. a precise listing of instruments, equipment and procedures that allows an aircraft to be operated under specific conditions with inoperative equipment
- 2. it is a specific document based off of make, model, serial number and registration number i.e. B747
- 3. The items are deembed by the FAA to be inoperative but the aircraft is still at a acceptable safety level based on certain conditins and limitatins.
What limitations apply to aircraft operations conducted using defferal provisions of 14 CFR 91.213?
- When inoperative equipment is found in preflight or prior to departure the PIC should:
- 1. cancle the flight
- 2. receieve maintenance prior to flight
- 3. defer the inoperative equipment.
What are the procedures to follow when using 14 CFR 91.213 for deferral of inoperative equipment?
Pilot determines if the inoperative equipment is required by type design, regulation of AD, IF NOT THEN:
- 1. the airplane can fly safely
- 2. make a defferal
- 3. remove or deactive the inoperative item
- 4. place INOPERATIVE label near the swtich, control or indicator
Cert. Maintenance personal must work with inoperative equipment if it requires maintenance.
Whate are some of the responsibilities an aircraft owner has pertaining to aircraft documents, maintenance and inspections of the aircraft?
- 1. Keep current Airworthiness Certificate and Aircraft Registration
- 2. aircraft is maintained in airworthy conditions including compliance with ADs
- 3. maintenance is recorded properly
- 4. keep on top of current regulations concerning the operation of the aircraft
- 5. FAA has to know of loss of citizenship, mailing address changed, sale or export of aircraft
- 6. FCC license is current, radios, ELT if operated outside of the USA
The simple or minor preservation operations and replacement of small standard parts not involving complex assembly operations.
Essentially no complex maintenance.
What are special flight permints? When are the necessary?
An aircraft does not meet the airworthiness requirements, but able to preform safe flight then it gets a special flight premit.
- 1. flying an aircraft to a base to be repaired, altered, storage or maintenance
- 2. delivering or exporting an aircraft
- 3. new aircraft product being flight tested
- 4. evacuating from danger
- 5. customer demonstration flight of a new product after a passing a production flight test
How does you get a special flight permit?
Flight Standard District Office or Designated Airworthiness Representative
What are Airworthiness Directives? AD?
- FAA's medium to let owners know of unsafe conditions that may exist in an aircraft due to design defects, maintenance or other causes.
- FAA lets you know what conditions the aircraft can be operated in.
Aircraft has transferred ownership, how long will the temporary registration certificate be valid?
Preventive maintenance has been performed on an aircraft. What paper work is required?
Entry in the maintenanace record
Where is an equipment list located?
aircraft weight and balance handbook
How do you determine the stability of the atmosphere?
- Compare to standard lapse rate of 3.5 F per 1000 feet.
- Stable air cools are a rate less than standard lapse rate
- Unstable rate cools at a rate faster than stable lapse rate.
Freezing level ratio
For every 1000 feet you go up take away 2 degrees C
What conditions are necessary for structural ice to occur?
Visible moisture and below freezing temperatures at the point moisture strikes the aircraft
What are two main types of icing?
Four types of Structural Ice?
- 1. clear ice
- 2. rime ice
- 3. mixed ice
- 4. frost
What is clear ice?
Large drops striking the aircraft surface and slowly freezing
What is rime ice?
Rapidly freezing small drops that strike the aircraft
What is mixed ice?
Mixture of rime ice and clear ice that vary in size
What is frost?
Ice crystals that form from sublimation of dew point and temperature hitting below freezing level.
What action is recommended if you inadvertently encounter icing conditions?
Change course and/or altitude, usually climb to a higher altitude.
Define the term wind shear
A rate change of wind velocity per unit of distance, vertical or horizontal wind shear
How is frost hazardous to flight?
1. Frost spoils the smooth flow of air.
2. Slowing of air flow
3. Early airflow separation.
4. Experience a lost of lift.
5. May not be able to become airborne at normal takeoff speed.
6. Could stall
What factors must be present for a thunderstorm to form?
- 1. A source of lift
- a. heating, a fast-moving front
- 2. unstable air
- a. nonstandard lapse rate
- 3. high moisture content
- a. temperature/ dew point close
What are the three stages of a thunderstorm?
- 1. Cumulus stage
- a. updrafts and large raindrops
- 2. Mature Stage
- a. rain at earth's surface falling beside the updraft, thunder, lightening and roll clouds
- 3. Dissipating Stage
- a. downdrafts and rain begin to dissipate or separate.
State two basic ways that fog may form.
1. The air cooling to dew point.
2. Adding moisture to the air.
Name several types of fog.
1. Radiation Fog
2. Advection Fog
3. Upslope fog
4. Precipitation induced fog.
5. Ice fog.
What causes radiation fog to form?
The ground cools the near air to the dew point on calm, clear nights.
What is advection fog and where does it form?
Warm air over a cool surface is advection fog. Think of warm Florida air over the cold gulf ocean.
Found along the coast lines.
Advection fogs can come at anytime.
What is upslope fog?
Occuring in high altitudes and mountainous areas. Upslope fog is moist stable air being cooled moving up a sloping terrain.
Where is wind shear likely to occur?
1. low level temperature inversions.
2. frontal zone or thunderstorm.
3. CAT at high levels associated with a jet stream.
What is wind shear?
Wind shear is the rate of change of wind velocitey (direction and/or speed)
Why should pilots operating be concern with wind shear?
With the unexpected change in wind speed and direction this can be very dangerous during approach to or departing an airport.
What is the primary means of obtaining a weather briefing?
Calling 1-800-WX- Brief which is associated with talking to an 24 hour available briefer.
What are some other sources of obtaining weather?
1. Private weather and aeronautical information systems
3. TWEB > Transcribed weather broadcast
4. TWEB > Telephone access
5. Telephone info. briefing service
Where can you find a listing of FSS and weather information numbers?
1. Airport/ Facility Directory under FAA and NWS Telephone Numbers
2. Government section of the phone book
What type of weather briefings are avaible from the briefer?
1. Standard Briefing
2. Abbreviated Briefing
3. Outlook Briefing
What is a standard briefing?
A request when you have not received a previous briefing.
Update of the previous briefing. Essentially if you only need to update one or two items.
What is an outlook briefing?
A briefing of a flight plan that won't occur for another six or more hours.
Request when need to update a preflight briefing
What pertinent information should a weather briefing include?
1. Adverse Conditions
2. VFR flight not recommended
3. Synopsis or Weather Summary
4. Current Conditions
5. Enroute Forecast
6. Destination Forecast
7. Winds aloft
8. Notices to Airment
9. ATC Delay
Additional information that a weather briefing should include
1. MOA or MTR information
3. ADIZ rules
4. any other system required
What is EFAS?
Enroute Flight Advisory System.
What does EFAS provide?
1. weather advisories at the time which relate to your flight plan
2. Can submit pilot reports
3. can receive pilot reports
What EFAS frequency?
Between what altitudes is EFAS provided on?
5,000 feet to 17,500 feet
What is the other name for EFAS ?
What is HIWAS?
Hazardous in flight weather advisory service.
What does HIWAS provide?
A continuous broadcast of in flight weather advisories:
1. Aviation weather warning
3. Convective SIGMETs
4. Center Weather Advisories
6. Urgent PIREPS
What is METAR?
Aviation rountine weather report. Gives a surface observation outlook of the conditions observed at an airport.
When is METAR available?
What are basic elements of METAR?
1. ICAO station identifier
2. Date and time of the report in zulu
- 3. modifier
- a. if AUTO if no human is involved
- b. AO1 or AO2 remarks weather precipitation sensor was used
5. Visibility in statute miles
6. runway visual range
- 7. weather phenomena
- a. is it snowing
8. sky conditions
9. temperature/ dew point
What are four types of weather observing programs available?
1. Manual Obesrvation
3. AWOS Broadcasts
Reports made from airport locations staffed by FAA and NWS personnel
Automated Weather Observation System, computer generated minute by minute broadcast of local weather directed to the pilot
Computer generated voice that gives minute by minute weather observation
Automated Surface Observation System which is transmitted over VHF radios providing minute by minute METAR information
PIREPs element requirements
3. UTC time
4. flight level
5. type of aircraft
6. weather element
Radar Weather Reports
Gives precipitation information:
4. height of precipitation
5. intensity of precipitation
How are heights recorded in Radar Reports
What is a TAF
Terminal Area Forecast
What does TAF consist of?
Expected meteorological conditions at a 5 SM radius from the center of the airports runway during a 24 hour period
What are elements of the TAF
1. Station identifier
2. date and time of 24 hour report, valid period date and time
What is an Aviation Area Forecast?
A forecast of meteorological conditions of clouds nd general weather over several states
How many times is Aviation Area Forecast issued
Three times a day from the Aviation Weather Center
How many areas are there for Aviation Weather Forecast?
What are the four sections that the Aviation Area Forecast composed of?
1. Communication and product header section
2. Precautionary statement section
3. Synopsis Section
4. VFR clouds and weather section
Communication and product header section what does it provide
1. identification the states that consist in that area
2. the date of the issued report
3. the time the report was issued and the valid time of the report
4. the product name
What are the three precautionary statements?
1. SEE AIRMET SIERRA FOR IFR CONDITIONS AND MTN OBSC
2. TSTMS IMPLY SVR OR GTR TURBC SVR ICG LLWS AND IFR CONDS
3. NON MSL HGTS ARE DENOTED BY AGL OR CIG
What is SEE AIRMET SIERRA FOR IFR CONDITIONS AND MTN OBSC
for IFR users alerting them of mountain obscurements that may be in that portion of that Area Forecast
What is TSTMS IMPLY PSBL SVR OR GTR TURBC SVR UCG LLWS AND IFR CONDS
reminds of the hazards exisiting in all thunderstorms
What is NON MSL HGTS ARE DENOTED BY AGL OR CIG
1. Heights are above sea level
2. heights are in hundred feet
What is SYNOPSIS SECTION
1. location of pressure systems and fronts in an 18 hour period
2. other weather phenomena are included
What is VFR CLOUDS AND WEATHER SECTION?
12 hour specific forecast of states broken down state by state giving a general description of clouds and weather
What are in flight weather advisories?
lets en route aircraft know of hazardous weather
What are the three types of Inflight Weather Advisories
3. Convective SIGMETS
/What does Convective SIGMETs offer?
1. severe or greater turbulence
2. severe icing
3. low level wind shear
Who does Convective SIGMETs account for?
All categories of aircraft
What are convective SIGMETs issued for
Central, Eastern Western
What is the time frame of Convective SIGMETs
issued at any time and updated at H+ 55
How long are Convective SIGMETs valid for?
Describe Convective SIGMETs thunderstorms
1. embedded thunderstorms
- 2. severe thunderstorms
- a. 50 knot surface winds
- b. hail
- c. tornadoes
3. a line thunderstorms
4. heavy precipitation thunderstorm
What is a SIGMENT
A non convective advisory that is hazardous to all aircraft
How many areas does SIGMENT issue cover
How long is the SIGMENT forcast period
What kinds of weather phenomenas are for SIGMETs
1. severe icing
2. extreme CAT
3. dust storms and sand storms
4. low visibility
5. volcanic ash
What is an AIRMET
weather phenomen that are described lower than SIGMETs
When are AIRMETs issued
every six hours
who can use AIRMETS
AIRMETs are used for all pilots in the preflight and en route phase of flight to enhance safety
What is the time frame of TWEB
Issued every 12 hours at four times a day
What does TWEB cover?
TWEB covers an area of a radius of 50 NM
What does the TWEB forecast describe
1. surface winds of 25 knots or greater
3. obscuration vision
4. sky conditions
5. mountain obscurement
6. low level wind shear
What are the four valuable assets from obtaining winds aloft
1. favorable altitudes for flying
2. areas of possible icing
3. temperature inversions
How is Center Weather Advisiories helpful
The give warning to aircrews to avoid weather conditions in the en route or terminal environments
How long is Center Weather Advisories valid for
two hours but conditions are known to carry out longer a statement will be given
What is Convective Outlook
A national forecast of thunderstorms
What is the time frame of Convective Outlook
A two (or 48 hour period)
What does Convective Outlook describe
The areas of non- severe, light, moderate or high risk of thunderstorms
How is Convective Outlook used
helps in flight planning to avoid thunderstorms
Name some weather charts available
1. surface analysis charts
2. weather depiction charts
3. radar summary chart
4. significant weather prognostic charts
5. winds and temperature aloft charts
6. composite moisture stability charts
7. convective outlook chart
8. constant pressure analysis charts
9. volcanic ash forecast transport
What is the time frame of Surface Analysis Charts
every three hours
What does Surface Analysis Charts offer
1. location of pressure systems
5. dew point
What is the time frame of Weather Depiction Chart
three hour intervals
What does a Weather Depiction Chart offer
1. a bird's eye view of weather
2. total sky cover
3. cloud height
6. obstructions to visibility
ceilings less than 1,000 MSL and a visibility of 3 miles with instrument flight rules
Marginal VFR with ceilings between 1,000 to 3,000 feel and 3 to 5 SM visibility
No ceiling or ceilings have to be greater than 3,000 and visibility greater than 5 miles
Radar Summary charts lack what?
fog and cloud display
What is the time frame of Radar Summary Charts
hourly and valid from 35 minutes pass each hour
What do Radar Summary offer?
1. intensity of precipitation
2. the coverage of precipitation
3. movement of precipitation
What is the time frame of Prognostic Charts
Every 12, 24, 36, 48 hours
What is the height of Low level prog charts
Surface to 24,000 feet
What is high level significat prog charts
24,000 to 60,000 feet
What is the time frame of Low Level Significant Weather Prog. Charts
12, 24, 36, 48 hours issued four times a day
What are the characteristics of Low Level prog. charts
1. pressure systems and fronts
3. pressure patterns
5. freezing levels
What is a composite moisture stability chart
a four panel chart used to observe upper air data
time frame of Composite Moisture Stability
What are the characteristics of Composite Moisture Stability
2. relative humidity
3. low highs and fronts
How is Convective Outlook displayed
two days in two panels providing a forecast of thunderstorms
What is Constant Pressure
Any surface of equal pressure in the atmosphere is a constant pressure surface
What does a Constant Pressure Analysis depict
5. isobars patterns
What is VAFTAD
Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport and Dispersion Chart which discusses how volanic ash from a volcano travels
What is the time frame for VARTAD
every 6 or/and 12 hours
What is an airfoil
a device that can produce lift if air moves over its surface
What are examples of airfoils
3. horizontal tail surfaces
What is the angle of incidence
the angle of incidence is the angle formed by the longitudinal axies of airplane and the chord of the wing
How do you measure the angle of incidence
the angle at which the wing is attached to the fuselage
low pressure over the upper surface is greater velocity over the wing because it is longer at the top while greater pressure causes less velocity at the bottom of the wing because the length is shorter
Lift and Drag affected by wing area
Wing area can change by changing the flaps
Lift and Drage with the shape of the airfoil
If frost is on the airfoil it will disrupt the airflow and possibly seperate the airflow resulting in a lost a lift
the curvature of an airfoil can increase lift
Angle of attack on drag and lift
Proportional to each other. As angle of attack increase lift and drag are increased
Velocity of air on lift and drag
Increase in velocity of air poassing over the wing will increase lift and drag
Air density on lift and drag
Air density increase = lift and drag increase
Air density decrease = lift and drag decrease
What three factors affect air density
Newton's third law
for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
as the propeller revolves in one direction and equal opposite force acts on the airplane at an opposite direction
When is torque effect at its greatest
- 1. at low airspeeds with high power settings and high angles of attack
- a. think of doing a power on stall
In flight torque effect
the plane tends to roll do to torque acting on the longitudinal axis
One the ground torque effect
left turning moment during takeoff
Torque reaction of the engine and propeller
the rotation of the propeller to the right causes the plane to bank left
Gyroscopic effect of the propeller
when force is applied to a spinning object on the outter rim the force will be shown 90 degrees from where the force was applied
Corkscrewing effect of the propeller slipstream
the slipstream strikes the vertical tail surface on the left side pushing the tail to the right and yawing the airplane to the left
Asymmetrical Loading of the propeller (p-factor)
The airplane yaws to the left because the lower downward moving blade is at a greater angle of attack having greater thrust than the upward moving blade
What is centrifugal force
the equal and opposite reaction of the airplane to change in direction and acts on equal opposite to hte horizontal component of lift
a ratio of the total load supported by the airplanes wing / to the actual weight of the airplane
two reason load factor is important to pilots
1. dangers of overloading and the stress imposed on the aircraft structure
- 2. increase load factors comes with an increase in the stalling speed
- a. increase load factors can make stalls possible at safe flights
Level turns whre load factors is reached or exceeded
after 45 degree the load factor increases
at 60 degrees the load factor is a 2G
Turbulence associated with a a load factor
severe vertical gust of wind can increase the angle of attack resulting in a large load which are resisted by the inertia of the airplane
Speed associated with load factors
Load factor can be exceeded if a plane is flying faster than maneuvering speed takes on an abrupt control change
What are the different opertaional categories of for aircraft and within which category does your aircraft fall
1. Normal ......+3.8 to - 1.52
2. Utility ........+4.4 to -1.76
3. Aerobatic .......+6.0 to - 3.00
What effect does load factor have on stalling speed
As load factor increases stalling speed increase
How are load factor, angle of attack and speed connected
At a given airspeed the load factor increase as analge of attack increases, and the wing stalls becasue the angle of attack has been increased to a certain angle
The speed are which abrupt changing can be applied without exceeding the limit load factor
How is maneuvering speed effected by the increase of weight
maneuverign speed increases with an increase in weight and decrease with a decrease in weight
What causes an airplane to stall
- 1. reaching the critical angle of attack and exceeding it
- a. 18 degrees
2. when air can not flow over the wing smoothly
3. any speed
4. any power setting
What is a spin
recoverable or unrecoverable maneuver in whcih the airplane descends in a helical path while flying at an angle of attack than the critical angle of attack
What are spins a result of
- 1. aggravated stalls
- a. slip or skid
- 2. stalls
- a. have to have a stall to have spin
What causes a spin
1. exceeding a critical angle of attack
2. excessive rudder and aileron
3. insufficient rudder and aileron
Spins associated with engine failure on takeoff during climbout
pilot increases back pressure trying to stretch out the landing area and makes an uncoordinated turn with a low airspeed
Spin associated with crossed- control turn from base to final (slipping and skidding)
pilot overshoots final and makes an uncoordinated turn at low airspeeds
Spin associated with engine failure on approach to landing
pilot tries to stretch glide by increasing back pressure
Spin associated with go around with full nose up trim
pilot applies power with full flpas and nose up trim combined with uncoordinated use of rudder
Spin associated with go around with improper flap retraction
pilot applies power and retracts flaps rapidly resulting in a rapid sink rate follwe by an instinctive increase in back pressure
Steps to recover from an inadvertent spin
1. close the throttle
2. neutralize the ailerons
3. apply full opposite rudder
4. elevator forward to neutral position
5. break the stall and neutralize the rudder the spin should stop
6. gradually apply elevator pressure and return to level flight
The direction opposite to that desired
Example of adverse yaw
When turning left the right aileron produces more life along with more drag which causes adverse yaw because the drag pulls the plane to the right which is the undesired direction
What is ground effect
Improved performance that airplane experiences when operating near the ground
How does ground effect work
Airflow is restricted by the ground surface
there is reduction of the wing's upwash, downwash and wingtip vortices
the closer to the ground the more magnitude of ground effect
Ground effect problems with during landing
Drag reduction of almost 40% will cause floating along the runway. If runway is short may run out of runway
Ground effect problems during takeoff
May feel like the aircraft can takeoff well before takeoff speed due to the reduction in drag
taking off without enough speed results in
marginal climb performace
can't fly at all
settle back down to the runway due to deficiency of speed
the airframe, engines, and fixed equipment in the aircraft
maximum allowable weight of both the airplane and its contents
weight of the pilot, co-pilot, passengers, baggage, usable fuel and drainable oil
horizontal distance in inches from the reference datum line to the center of gravity of the item
the product of the weight of an item mulitplied by its arm
expressed in pounds inches
center of gravity
the point about which an aircraft would balance if ti were possibel to suspend it at the point
expressed in inches from datum
imaginary vertical plane or line from which all measurements of arm are taken
established by manufacturer
Basic equation for weight and balance problems to find the center of gravity
weight x arm = moment
Characteristics adversly affected when an aircraft has been overloaded
1. higher takeoff speed
2. longer takeoff run
3. reduce rate and angle of climb
4. lower maximum alititude
5. shorter range
6. reduced cruising speed
7. reduced maneuverability
8. higher stalling speed
9. higher landing speed
10. longer landing roll
11. excessive weight on the nosewheel
Forward center of gravity at higher stall speed
stalling angle of attack is reached at a higher speed due to increase wing loading
Forward center of gravity associated with slower cruise speed
increase drag; greater angle of attack is required to maintain altitude
Forward center of gravity associated with more stable
the center of gravity is farther forward from thecenter of pressure which increase longitudinal stability
Forward center of gravity associated with greater back elevator pressure required
longer takeoff roll, higher approach speeds and problesm with landing flare