Private Pilot

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jwinko12
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43490
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Private Pilot
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2012-03-04 19:05:21
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Oral Exam Pilot
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From the book Private Pilot Oral Exam Guide Eighth Edition
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  1. What regulations apply concerning the operation of an aircraft that has had alterations or repairs which may have substantially affected its operation in flight?
    No passengers are allowed to be carried in a aircraft that has undergone alterations unless an appropriately rated pilot (private pilot at the minimum) has:

    made operation check of maintenance performed or alterations made

    flies the aircraft

    logs the flight in aircraft records
  2. What is an Airworthiness Certificate and how long does it remain valid?
    1. After meeting the requirements of 14CFR and is found safe for operations the FAA will isse the Airworthiness Certificate

    2. must meet the requirements of the oringinal certificate

    3. must be displayed in the aircraft for crew and passengers to see

    • 4. transferred when the aircaft is sold
    • a. except to a foreign purchaser

    5. remains in effect as long as the aircraft receives the required maintenance and is prperly registered in the United States
  3. Can a pilot conduct a flight operation in an aircraft with known inoperative equipment?
    Yes, under specific conditions. 14 CFR Part 91 describes acceptable methods for operation:

    Minimum equipment list 91.213 for aircrafts

    Operation of aircraft without MEL under 14 CFR 91.213
  4. What are Minimum Equipment Lists?
    • 1. a precise listing of instruments, equipment and procedures that allows an aircraft to be operated under specific conditions with inoperative equipment
    • 2. it is a specific document based off of make, model, serial number and registration number i.e. B747
    • 3. The items are deembed by the FAA to be inoperative but the aircraft is still at a acceptable safety level based on certain conditins and limitatins.
  5. What limitations apply to aircraft operations conducted using defferal provisions of 14 CFR 91.213?
    • When inoperative equipment is found in preflight or prior to departure the PIC should:
    • 1. cancle the flight
    • 2. receieve maintenance prior to flight
    • 3. defer the inoperative equipment.
  6. What are the procedures to follow when using 14 CFR 91.213 for deferral of inoperative equipment?
    Pilot determines if the inoperative equipment is required by type design, regulation of AD, IF NOT THEN:

    • 1. the airplane can fly safely
    • 2. make a defferal
    • 3. remove or deactive the inoperative item
    • 4. place INOPERATIVE label near the swtich, control or indicator

    Cert. Maintenance personal must work with inoperative equipment if it requires maintenance.
  7. Whate are some of the responsibilities an aircraft owner has pertaining to aircraft documents, maintenance and inspections of the aircraft?
    • 1. Keep current Airworthiness Certificate and Aircraft Registration
    • 2. aircraft is maintained in airworthy conditions including compliance with ADs
    • 3. maintenance is recorded properly
    • 4. keep on top of current regulations concerning the operation of the aircraft
    • 5. FAA has to know of loss of citizenship, mailing address changed, sale or export of aircraft
    • 6. FCC license is current, radios, ELT if operated outside of the USA
  8. Preventive Maintenace
    The simple or minor preservation operations and replacement of small standard parts not involving complex assembly operations.

    Essentially no complex maintenance.
  9. What are special flight permints? When are the necessary?
    An aircraft does not meet the airworthiness requirements, but able to preform safe flight then it gets a special flight premit.

    • 1. flying an aircraft to a base to be repaired, altered, storage or maintenance
    • 2. delivering or exporting an aircraft
    • 3. new aircraft product being flight tested
    • 4. evacuating from danger
    • 5. customer demonstration flight of a new product after a passing a production flight test
  10. How does you get a special flight permit?
    Flight Standard District Office or Designated Airworthiness Representative
  11. What are Airworthiness Directives? AD?
    • FAA's medium to let owners know of unsafe conditions that may exist in an aircraft due to design defects, maintenance or other causes.
    • FAA lets you know what conditions the aircraft can be operated in.
  12. Aircraft has transferred ownership, how long will the temporary registration certificate be valid?
    90 Days
  13. Preventive maintenance has been performed on an aircraft. What paper work is required?
    Entry in the maintenanace record
  14. Where is an equipment list located?
    aircraft weight and balance handbook
  15. How do you determine the stability of the atmosphere?
    • Compare to standard lapse rate of 3.5 F per 1000 feet.
    • Stable air cools are a rate less than standard lapse rate
    • Unstable rate cools at a rate faster than stable lapse rate.
  16. Freezing level ratio
    For every 1000 feet you go up take away 2 degrees C
  17. What conditions are necessary for structural ice to occur?
    Visible moisture and below freezing temperatures at the point moisture strikes the aircraft
  18. What are two main types of icing?
    1. Structural

    2. Induction
  19. Four types of Structural Ice?
    • 1. clear ice
    • 2. rime ice
    • 3. mixed ice
    • 4. frost
  20. What is clear ice?
    Large drops striking the aircraft surface and slowly freezing
  21. What is rime ice?
    Rapidly freezing small drops that strike the aircraft
  22. What is mixed ice?
    Mixture of rime ice and clear ice that vary in size
  23. What is frost?
    Ice crystals that form from sublimation of dew point and temperature hitting below freezing level.
  24. What action is recommended if you inadvertently encounter icing conditions?
    Change course and/or altitude, usually climb to a higher altitude.
  25. Define the term wind shear
    A rate change of wind velocity per unit of distance, vertical or horizontal wind shear
  26. How is frost hazardous to flight?
    1. Frost spoils the smooth flow of air.

    2. Slowing of air flow

    3. Early airflow separation.

    4. Experience a lost of lift.

    5. May not be able to become airborne at normal takeoff speed.

    6. Could stall
  27. What factors must be present for a thunderstorm to form?
    • 1. A source of lift
    • a. heating, a fast-moving front

    • 2. unstable air
    • a. nonstandard lapse rate

    • 3. high moisture content
    • a. temperature/ dew point close
  28. What are the three stages of a thunderstorm?
    • 1. Cumulus stage
    • a. updrafts and large raindrops

    • 2. Mature Stage
    • a. rain at earth's surface falling beside the updraft, thunder, lightening and roll clouds

    • 3. Dissipating Stage
    • a. downdrafts and rain begin to dissipate or separate.
  29. State two basic ways that fog may form.
    1. The air cooling to dew point.

    2. Adding moisture to the air.
  30. Name several types of fog.
    1. Radiation Fog

    2. Advection Fog

    3. Upslope fog

    4. Precipitation induced fog.

    5. Ice fog.
  31. What causes radiation fog to form?
    The ground cools the near air to the dew point on calm, clear nights.
  32. What is advection fog and where does it form?
    Warm air over a cool surface is advection fog. Think of warm Florida air over the cold gulf ocean.

    Found along the coast lines.

    Advection fogs can come at anytime.
  33. What is upslope fog?
    Occuring in high altitudes and mountainous areas. Upslope fog is moist stable air being cooled moving up a sloping terrain.
  34. Where is wind shear likely to occur?
    1. low level temperature inversions.

    2. frontal zone or thunderstorm.

    3. CAT at high levels associated with a jet stream.
  35. What is wind shear?
    Wind shear is the rate of change of wind velocitey (direction and/or speed)
  36. Why should pilots operating be concern with wind shear?
    With the unexpected change in wind speed and direction this can be very dangerous during approach to or departing an airport.
  37. What is the primary means of obtaining a weather briefing?
    Calling 1-800-WX- Brief which is associated with talking to an 24 hour available briefer.
  38. What are some other sources of obtaining weather?
    1. Private weather and aeronautical information systems

    2. DUATS

    3. TWEB > Transcribed weather broadcast

    4. TWEB > Telephone access

    5. Telephone info. briefing service
  39. Where can you find a listing of FSS and weather information numbers?
    1. Airport/ Facility Directory under FAA and NWS Telephone Numbers

    2. Government section of the phone book
  40. What type of weather briefings are avaible from the briefer?
    1. Standard Briefing

    2. Abbreviated Briefing

    3. Outlook Briefing
  41. What is a standard briefing?
    A request when you have not received a previous briefing.
  42. Abbreviated briefing
    Update of the previous briefing. Essentially if you only need to update one or two items.
  43. What is an outlook briefing?
    A briefing of a flight plan that won't occur for another six or more hours.
  44. Inflight Briefing
    Request when need to update a preflight briefing
  45. What pertinent information should a weather briefing include?
    1. Adverse Conditions

    2. VFR flight not recommended

    3. Synopsis or Weather Summary

    4. Current Conditions

    5. Enroute Forecast

    6. Destination Forecast

    7. Winds aloft

    8. Notices to Airment

    9. ATC Delay
  46. Additional information that a weather briefing should include
    1. MOA or MTR information

    2. NOTAMS

    3. ADIZ rules

    4. any other system required
  47. What is EFAS?
    Enroute Flight Advisory System.
  48. What does EFAS provide?
    1. weather advisories at the time which relate to your flight plan

    2. Can submit pilot reports

    3. can receive pilot reports
  49. What EFAS frequency?
    122.0 MHZ
  50. Between what altitudes is EFAS provided on?
    5,000 feet to 17,500 feet
  51. What is the other name for EFAS ?
    Flight Watch
  52. What is HIWAS?
    Hazardous in flight weather advisory service.
  53. What does HIWAS provide?
    A continuous broadcast of in flight weather advisories:

    1. Aviation weather warning

    2. SIGMETS

    3. Convective SIGMETs

    4. Center Weather Advisories

    5. AIRMETs

    6. Urgent PIREPS
  54. What is METAR?
    Aviation rountine weather report. Gives a surface observation outlook of the conditions observed at an airport.
  55. When is METAR available?
    Hourly
  56. What are basic elements of METAR?
    1. ICAO station identifier

    2. Date and time of the report in zulu

    • 3. modifier
    • a. if AUTO if no human is involved
    • b. AO1 or AO2 remarks weather precipitation sensor was used

    4. Wind

    5. Visibility in statute miles

    6. runway visual range

    • 7. weather phenomena
    • a. is it snowing

    8. sky conditions

    9. temperature/ dew point

    10. altimeter

    11. remarks
  57. What are four types of weather observing programs available?
    1. Manual Obesrvation

    2. AWOS

    3. AWOS Broadcasts

    4. ASOS
  58. Manual Observation
    Reports made from airport locations staffed by FAA and NWS personnel
  59. AWOS
    Automated Weather Observation System, computer generated minute by minute broadcast of local weather directed to the pilot
  60. AWOS Broadcast
    Computer generated voice that gives minute by minute weather observation
  61. ASOS
    Automated Surface Observation System which is transmitted over VHF radios providing minute by minute METAR information
  62. PIREPs element requirements
    1. type

    2. location

    3. UTC time

    4. flight level

    5. type of aircraft

    6. weather element
  63. Radar Weather Reports
    Gives precipitation information:

    1. rain

    2. snow

    3. thunderstorms

    4. height of precipitation

    5. intensity of precipitation

    6. location
  64. How are heights recorded in Radar Reports
    MSL
  65. What is a TAF
    Terminal Area Forecast
  66. What does TAF consist of?
    Expected meteorological conditions at a 5 SM radius from the center of the airports runway during a 24 hour period
  67. What are elements of the TAF
    1. Station identifier

    2. date and time of 24 hour report, valid period date and time

    3. forecast
  68. What is an Aviation Area Forecast?
    A forecast of meteorological conditions of clouds nd general weather over several states
  69. How many times is Aviation Area Forecast issued
    Three times a day from the Aviation Weather Center
  70. How many areas are there for Aviation Weather Forecast?
    Six sections
  71. What are the four sections that the Aviation Area Forecast composed of?
    1. Communication and product header section

    2. Precautionary statement section

    3. Synopsis Section

    4. VFR clouds and weather section
  72. Communication and product header section what does it provide
    1. identification the states that consist in that area

    2. the date of the issued report

    3. the time the report was issued and the valid time of the report

    4. the product name
  73. What are the three precautionary statements?
    1. SEE AIRMET SIERRA FOR IFR CONDITIONS AND MTN OBSC

    2. TSTMS IMPLY SVR OR GTR TURBC SVR ICG LLWS AND IFR CONDS

    3. NON MSL HGTS ARE DENOTED BY AGL OR CIG
  74. What is SEE AIRMET SIERRA FOR IFR CONDITIONS AND MTN OBSC
    for IFR users alerting them of mountain obscurements that may be in that portion of that Area Forecast
  75. What is TSTMS IMPLY PSBL SVR OR GTR TURBC SVR UCG LLWS AND IFR CONDS
    reminds of the hazards exisiting in all thunderstorms
  76. What is NON MSL HGTS ARE DENOTED BY AGL OR CIG
    1. Heights are above sea level

    2. heights are in hundred feet
  77. What is SYNOPSIS SECTION
    1. location of pressure systems and fronts in an 18 hour period

    2. other weather phenomena are included
  78. What is VFR CLOUDS AND WEATHER SECTION?
    12 hour specific forecast of states broken down state by state giving a general description of clouds and weather
  79. What are in flight weather advisories?
    lets en route aircraft know of hazardous weather
  80. What are the three types of Inflight Weather Advisories
    1. SIGMETS

    2. AIRMET

    3. Convective SIGMETS
  81. /What does Convective SIGMETs offer?
    1. severe or greater turbulence

    2. severe icing

    3. low level wind shear
  82. Who does Convective SIGMETs account for?
    All categories of aircraft
  83. What are convective SIGMETs issued for
    Central, Eastern Western
  84. What is the time frame of Convective SIGMETs
    issued at any time and updated at H+ 55
  85. How long are Convective SIGMETs valid for?
    two hours
  86. Describe Convective SIGMETs thunderstorms
    1. embedded thunderstorms

    • 2. severe thunderstorms
    • a. 50 knot surface winds
    • b. hail
    • c. tornadoes

    3. a line thunderstorms

    4. heavy precipitation thunderstorm
  87. What is a SIGMENT
    A non convective advisory that is hazardous to all aircraft
  88. How many areas does SIGMENT issue cover
    six
  89. How long is the SIGMENT forcast period
    four hours
  90. What kinds of weather phenomenas are for SIGMETs
    1. severe icing

    2. extreme CAT

    3. dust storms and sand storms

    4. low visibility

    5. volcanic ash
  91. What is an AIRMET
    weather phenomen that are described lower than SIGMETs
  92. When are AIRMETs issued
    every six hours
  93. who can use AIRMETS
    AIRMETs are used for all pilots in the preflight and en route phase of flight to enhance safety
  94. What is the time frame of TWEB
    Issued every 12 hours at four times a day
  95. What does TWEB cover?
    TWEB covers an area of a radius of 50 NM
  96. What does the TWEB forecast describe
    1. surface winds of 25 knots or greater

    2. visibility

    3. obscuration vision

    4. sky conditions

    5. mountain obscurement

    6. low level wind shear
  97. What are the four valuable assets from obtaining winds aloft
    1. favorable altitudes for flying

    2. areas of possible icing

    3. temperature inversions

    4. turbulence
  98. How is Center Weather Advisiories helpful
    The give warning to aircrews to avoid weather conditions in the en route or terminal environments
  99. How long is Center Weather Advisories valid for
    two hours but conditions are known to carry out longer a statement will be given
  100. What is Convective Outlook
    A national forecast of thunderstorms
  101. What is the time frame of Convective Outlook
    A two (or 48 hour period)
  102. What does Convective Outlook describe
    The areas of non- severe, light, moderate or high risk of thunderstorms
  103. How is Convective Outlook used
    helps in flight planning to avoid thunderstorms
  104. Name some weather charts available
    1. surface analysis charts

    2. weather depiction charts

    3. radar summary chart

    4. significant weather prognostic charts

    5. winds and temperature aloft charts

    6. composite moisture stability charts

    7. convective outlook chart

    8. constant pressure analysis charts

    9. volcanic ash forecast transport
  105. What is the time frame of Surface Analysis Charts
    every three hours
  106. What does Surface Analysis Charts offer
    1. location of pressure systems

    2. fronts

    3. winds

    4. temperatures

    5. dew point
  107. What is the time frame of Weather Depiction Chart
    three hour intervals
  108. What does a Weather Depiction Chart offer
    1. a bird's eye view of weather

    2. total sky cover

    3. cloud height

    4. ceiling

    5. weather

    6. obstructions to visibility
  109. IFR
    ceilings less than 1,000 MSL and a visibility of 3 miles with instrument flight rules
  110. MVFR
    Marginal VFR with ceilings between 1,000 to 3,000 feel and 3 to 5 SM visibility
  111. VFR
    No ceiling or ceilings have to be greater than 3,000 and visibility greater than 5 miles
  112. Radar Summary charts lack what?
    fog and cloud display
  113. What is the time frame of Radar Summary Charts
    hourly and valid from 35 minutes pass each hour
  114. What do Radar Summary offer?
    1. intensity of precipitation

    2. the coverage of precipitation

    3. movement of precipitation
  115. What is the time frame of Prognostic Charts
    Every 12, 24, 36, 48 hours
  116. What is the height of Low level prog charts
    Surface to 24,000 feet
  117. What is high level significat prog charts
    24,000 to 60,000 feet
  118. What is the time frame of Low Level Significant Weather Prog. Charts
    12, 24, 36, 48 hours issued four times a day
  119. What are the characteristics of Low Level prog. charts
    1. pressure systems and fronts

    2. precipitations

    3. pressure patterns

    4. precipitations

    5. freezing levels

    6. turbulence
  120. What is a composite moisture stability chart
    a four panel chart used to observe upper air data
  121. time frame of Composite Moisture Stability
    twice daily
  122. What are the characteristics of Composite Moisture Stability
    1. precipitation

    2. relative humidity

    3. low highs and fronts
  123. How is Convective Outlook displayed
    two days in two panels providing a forecast of thunderstorms
  124. What is Constant Pressure
    Any surface of equal pressure in the atmosphere is a constant pressure surface
  125. What does a Constant Pressure Analysis depict
    1. highs

    2. lows

    3. troughs

    4. ridges

    5. isobars patterns
  126. What is VAFTAD
    Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport and Dispersion Chart which discusses how volanic ash from a volcano travels
  127. What is the time frame for VARTAD
    every 6 or/and 12 hours
  128. What is an airfoil
    a device that can produce lift if air moves over its surface
  129. What are examples of airfoils
    1. propellers

    2. flaps

    3. horizontal tail surfaces
  130. What is the angle of incidence
    the angle of incidence is the angle formed by the longitudinal axies of airplane and the chord of the wing
  131. How do you measure the angle of incidence
    the angle at which the wing is attached to the fuselage
  132. Bernoulli's Principle
    low pressure over the upper surface is greater velocity over the wing because it is longer at the top while greater pressure causes less velocity at the bottom of the wing because the length is shorter
  133. Lift and Drag affected by wing area
    Wing area can change by changing the flaps
  134. Lift and Drage with the shape of the airfoil
    If frost is on the airfoil it will disrupt the airflow and possibly seperate the airflow resulting in a lost a lift

    the curvature of an airfoil can increase lift
  135. Angle of attack on drag and lift
    Proportional to each other. As angle of attack increase lift and drag are increased
  136. Velocity of air on lift and drag
    Increase in velocity of air poassing over the wing will increase lift and drag
  137. Air density on lift and drag
    Air density increase = lift and drag increase

    Air density decrease = lift and drag decrease
  138. What three factors affect air density
    1. temperature

    2. pressure

    3. humidity
  139. Newton's third law
    for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
  140. Torque Effect
    as the propeller revolves in one direction and equal opposite force acts on the airplane at an opposite direction
  141. When is torque effect at its greatest
    • 1. at low airspeeds with high power settings and high angles of attack
    • a. think of doing a power on stall
  142. In flight torque effect
    the plane tends to roll do to torque acting on the longitudinal axis
  143. One the ground torque effect
    left turning moment during takeoff
  144. Torque reaction of the engine and propeller
    the rotation of the propeller to the right causes the plane to bank left
  145. Gyroscopic effect of the propeller
    when force is applied to a spinning object on the outter rim the force will be shown 90 degrees from where the force was applied
  146. Corkscrewing effect of the propeller slipstream
    the slipstream strikes the vertical tail surface on the left side pushing the tail to the right and yawing the airplane to the left
  147. Asymmetrical Loading of the propeller (p-factor)
    The airplane yaws to the left because the lower downward moving blade is at a greater angle of attack having greater thrust than the upward moving blade
  148. What is centrifugal force
    the equal and opposite reaction of the airplane to change in direction and acts on equal opposite to hte horizontal component of lift
  149. Load factor
    a ratio of the total load supported by the airplanes wing / to the actual weight of the airplane
  150. two reason load factor is important to pilots
    1. dangers of overloading and the stress imposed on the aircraft structure

    • 2. increase load factors comes with an increase in the stalling speed
    • a. increase load factors can make stalls possible at safe flights
  151. Level turns whre load factors is reached or exceeded
    after 45 degree the load factor increases

    at 60 degrees the load factor is a 2G
  152. Turbulence associated with a a load factor
    severe vertical gust of wind can increase the angle of attack resulting in a large load which are resisted by the inertia of the airplane
  153. Speed associated with load factors
    Load factor can be exceeded if a plane is flying faster than maneuvering speed takes on an abrupt control change
  154. What are the different opertaional categories of for aircraft and within which category does your aircraft fall
    1. Normal ......+3.8 to - 1.52

    2. Utility ........+4.4 to -1.76

    3. Aerobatic .......+6.0 to - 3.00
  155. What effect does load factor have on stalling speed
    As load factor increases stalling speed increase
  156. How are load factor, angle of attack and speed connected
    At a given airspeed the load factor increase as analge of attack increases, and the wing stalls becasue the angle of attack has been increased to a certain angle
  157. Maneuvering Speed
    The speed are which abrupt changing can be applied without exceeding the limit load factor
  158. How is maneuvering speed effected by the increase of weight
    maneuverign speed increases with an increase in weight and decrease with a decrease in weight
  159. What causes an airplane to stall
    • 1. reaching the critical angle of attack and exceeding it
    • a. 18 degrees

    2. when air can not flow over the wing smoothly

    3. any speed

    4. any power setting
  160. What is a spin
    recoverable or unrecoverable maneuver in whcih the airplane descends in a helical path while flying at an angle of attack than the critical angle of attack
  161. What are spins a result of
    • 1. aggravated stalls
    • a. slip or skid

    • 2. stalls
    • a. have to have a stall to have spin
  162. What causes a spin
    1. exceeding a critical angle of attack

    2. excessive rudder and aileron

    3. insufficient rudder and aileron
  163. Spins associated with engine failure on takeoff during climbout
    pilot increases back pressure trying to stretch out the landing area and makes an uncoordinated turn with a low airspeed
  164. Spin associated with crossed- control turn from base to final (slipping and skidding)
    pilot overshoots final and makes an uncoordinated turn at low airspeeds
  165. Spin associated with engine failure on approach to landing
    pilot tries to stretch glide by increasing back pressure
  166. Spin associated with go around with full nose up trim
    pilot applies power with full flpas and nose up trim combined with uncoordinated use of rudder
  167. Spin associated with go around with improper flap retraction
    pilot applies power and retracts flaps rapidly resulting in a rapid sink rate follwe by an instinctive increase in back pressure
  168. Steps to recover from an inadvertent spin
    1. close the throttle

    2. neutralize the ailerons

    3. apply full opposite rudder

    4. elevator forward to neutral position

    5. break the stall and neutralize the rudder the spin should stop

    6. gradually apply elevator pressure and return to level flight
  169. Adverse yaw
    The direction opposite to that desired
  170. Example of adverse yaw
    When turning left the right aileron produces more life along with more drag which causes adverse yaw because the drag pulls the plane to the right which is the undesired direction
  171. What is ground effect
    Improved performance that airplane experiences when operating near the ground
  172. How does ground effect work
    Airflow is restricted by the ground surface

    there is reduction of the wing's upwash, downwash and wingtip vortices

    the closer to the ground the more magnitude of ground effect
  173. Ground effect problems with during landing
    Drag reduction of almost 40% will cause floating along the runway. If runway is short may run out of runway
  174. Ground effect problems during takeoff
    May feel like the aircraft can takeoff well before takeoff speed due to the reduction in drag

    taking off without enough speed results in

    induced drag

    marginal climb performace

    can't fly at all

    settle back down to the runway due to deficiency of speed
  175. empty weight
    the airframe, engines, and fixed equipment in the aircraft
  176. gross weight
    maximum allowable weight of both the airplane and its contents
  177. useful load
    weight of the pilot, co-pilot, passengers, baggage, usable fuel and drainable oil
  178. arm
    horizontal distance in inches from the reference datum line to the center of gravity of the item
  179. moment
    the product of the weight of an item mulitplied by its arm

    expressed in pounds inches
  180. center of gravity
    the point about which an aircraft would balance if ti were possibel to suspend it at the point

    expressed in inches from datum
  181. datum
    imaginary vertical plane or line from which all measurements of arm are taken

    established by manufacturer
  182. Basic equation for weight and balance problems to find the center of gravity
    weight x arm = moment
  183. Characteristics adversly affected when an aircraft has been overloaded
    1. higher takeoff speed

    2. longer takeoff run

    3. reduce rate and angle of climb

    4. lower maximum alititude

    5. shorter range

    6. reduced cruising speed

    7. reduced maneuverability

    8. higher stalling speed

    9. higher landing speed

    10. longer landing roll

    11. excessive weight on the nosewheel
  184. Forward center of gravity at higher stall speed
    stalling angle of attack is reached at a higher speed due to increase wing loading
  185. Forward center of gravity associated with slower cruise speed
    increase drag; greater angle of attack is required to maintain altitude
  186. Forward center of gravity associated with more stable
    the center of gravity is farther forward from thecenter of pressure which increase longitudinal stability
  187. Forward center of gravity associated with greater back elevator pressure required
    longer takeoff roll, higher approach speeds and problesm with landing flare

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