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What is Stress?
An adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person’s well-being.
What is Eustress?
refers to the healthy, positive constructive outcome of stressful events and the stress response.
What is Distress?
the degree of physiological, psychological, and behavioral deviation from healthy functioning.
General Adaptation Syndrome
A model of the stress experience, consisting of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
What are Stressors?
Stressors are the causes of stress, including any environmental condition that places a physical or emotional demand on the person.
What are the different types of stressors?
- - Interpersonal
- - Role-related
- - Task control
- - Organizational/physical environment
- - Nonwork
What are Interpersonal Stressors?
Considered the most common group of workplace stressors.
- - Team dynamics
- - Organizational politics
- - Bad bosses
- - Workplace violence
- - Psychological and sexual harassment
What are Role-Related Stressors?
- Role conflict
- - Incongruity or incompatibility of expectations associated with the person’s role.
- - Occurs when two roles conflict with each other.
- - Occurs when personal values conflict with work roles.
- Role ambiguity
- - uncertain task and social expectations
- Work overload
- - increased hours and intensity
What are Task Control Stressors?
- Stress increases when employees lack control over:
- - How and when tasks are performed
- - Pace of work activity
Low task control is a higher stressor when job also has high responsibility.
What are Organizational & Physical Environment Stressors?
- Most prevalent is downsizing, which affects layoff survivors.
- - reduced job security
- - chaos of change
- - additional workloads
- - guilt of having a job as others lose theirs
- Physical EnvironmentDue to excessive noise, poor lighting and hazards.
What are Nonwork Stressors?
- Time-based conflict- due to business travel, inflexible and/or rotating work schedules
- - for women - still do most household chores
- Strain-based conflict
- - work stress affects home, and vice versa
- Role behavior conflict - incompatible work and family roles
What are “Type A” behavior patterns?
impatient, temper, competitive, interrupts others (road rage).
What are “Type B” behavior patterns?
patient, mellow, slower, smell the roses perspective (drive 55 in fast lane).
The process of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced efficacy (lower feelings of personal accomplishment) resulting from prolonged exposure to stress.
Stress Management Strategies (Diagram)
Remove the Stressor
- - Stress audits - investigate sources of stress.
- - Change corporate culture and reward system.
- - Provide environment that supports empowerment.
- - Work-life balance initiatives. Examples: flexible work time, job sharing, tele-working, personal leave, childcare support.
Withdraw from the Stressor
- Permanent withdrawal
- - Remove employees from jobs not aligned with their competencies.
- Temporary withdrawal
- - Coffe/lunch breaks
- - Karaoke breaks (photo)
- - Sabbaticals (work leave)
Other Stress Management Strategies
- Change stress perceptions
- - Self-confidence, self-leadership
- Control stress consequences
- - Relaxation and meditation
- - Fitness and wellness program
- Receive social support
- - Emotional and informational