Microbiology Exam 2

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Microbiology Exam 2
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Microbiology Exam 2
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  1. 5 Kingdoms
    Prokaryotae, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Anamalia
  2. 3 Domains
    Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
  3. Archaea: Cell wall - peptidomuran
    membrane lipids - ether bonds tween hydrocarbons & glycerol
  4. Archaea - 2 Phylums
    Crenarchaeota & Euryarchaeota
  5. Crenarchaeota -
    anaerobic, thermophillic, acidophillic, oxidize S or H
  6. Euryarchaeota - Methanogens (reduce CO2 ->CH4)
    live in rumen/intestines of animals, anaerobic, halophiles (require high [ ] NaCl, pump KCl into cell, Thermophillic-thermoacidophiles (high temp low pH), reduce S to H2S
  7. Domain: Bacteria
    • most primitive
    • Aquifex - microaerophillic chemolithoautotroph
    • Thermotogas - anaerovic chemoorganohererotroph
  8. Deinococci
    • spherical or tetrads
    • aerobic
    • Gram + (no techoic acid or outer membrane)
    • resistant to drying & radiation (1.5 million rads)
  9. Photosynthetic - Phylum: Chloroflexi
    • photosynthetic green nonsulfur bacteria & heterotrophic members
    • bacteriochlorophyll
    • anoxygenic
    • thermophillic
    • organic molecules as e- source
    • filamentous (gliding motility)
    • Chloroflex
  10. Phylum: Chlorobi
    • green sulfur bacteria
    • bacteriochlorophyll
    • anaerobic
    • anoxygenic
    • H2S as e- source
    • deposit S outside cell
    • rods, cocci, or vibrios
  11. Phylum: Cyanobacteria
    • largest/most diverse photosynthetic bacteria
    • oxygenic
    • chlorophyll a
    • phycobilins in phycobilisomes
    • 2 photosystems
    • single cells (filaments)
    • some fix N (heterocytes)
    • some gliding motility
    • Oscillatoria, Nostoc, Anabaena, Chroococcus
    • Prochloron - (proposed ancestor of chloroplasts) chlorophyll a & b, DNA doesn't support hypothesis
  12. Phylum: Chlamydiae
    • chlamydias
    • obligate intracelllular parasite of mammals & birds
    • small < 1um
    • small genome
    • no peptidoclycan wall (penicillin resistant)
    • cannot catabolize carbs or synth ATP (energy parasites)
    • Chlamydia trachomatis - eye & urogenital infection
  13. Phylum: Spirochaetes
    • Spirochetes
    • Gram -
    • helical
    • flixible
    • 5-18 um long
    • modified flagella in bundle (axial filament, outside cell inside outer sheath, swim corkscrew motion)
    • Habitat - soil, water, animal pathogen
    • Treponema pallidum - syphilis
    • Borrelia burgdorferii - lyme disease
  14. Phylum: Bacteroidetes
    • Bacteroides
    • Gram -
    • anaerobic rods
    • mixed acid fermentation
    • rumen/intestine/mouth of animals
    • cellulose digestion
    • 30% of population of human feces
    • few pathogens
    • Sphingobacteria - non-photosynthetic, non-fruiting, gliding, Gram -, sphingolipids in cell walls, not motile in suspension, degrade (cellulose, chitin, pectin, keratin, & agar), Cytophaga & Spirocytophaga
  15. Proteobacteria
    • largest & most diverse
    • variety of morphology, metabolism, and reproduction
    • common 16S rRNA
    • 5 Groups - a, b, y, s, e
    • purple photosynthetic bacteria
  16. Class a-Proteobacteria
    photoautotroph, chemolithotroph, organoheterotroph
  17. Purple nonsulfur
    • Anaerobic - photoorganoheterotroph, bacteriochlorophyll, organic molecules as e- & C source
    • Aerobic w/ no light - no bacteriochlorophyll, chemoheterotrophic, anaerobic muds, Rhodospirillum & Rhodopseudomonas
  18. Order Rickettsiales
    • rods, cocci, pleimorphic (variable shapes)
    • Gram -
    • small < 1um
    • obligate parasite in vertebrae cells
    • Arthropod vectors - ticks, mites, fleas, cannot synth CoA or NAD from host, no glycolysis, oxidize organic acids in Krebs, can take up ATP from host
    • Rickettsia rickettsii - Rocky Mountain spotted fever
    • R. prowazekii, R. typhi - typhus
    • Coxiella burnettii - Q fever
  19. Other a-Proteobacteria
    • Rhizobiaceae - aerobic N fixers
    • Rhizobium
    • Agrobacterium (plant tumor causing)
    • Nitritying bacteria (Nitrobacteriaceae) - oxidize NH4+ or NO2- ->NO3-, Nitrobacter & Nitromonas
  20. Order: Pseudomonadales
    • Gram -
    • aerobic rods & cocci
    • Pseudomonas (degrade wide variety of molecules)
    • Azotobacter (free living N fixer)
  21. Order: Vibrionales
    • Facultative anaerobic
    • Gram - curved rods
    • Pathogens (Vibrio cholerae)
    • bioluminescent bacteria (Photobacterium)
  22. Order: Enterobacteriales
    • Family: Enterobacteriaceae
    • largest group (35 genera)
    • facultative anaerobic
    • Enteric bacteria (live in animal intestines)
    • most are mixed acid fermentation
    • Eschericia, Salmonella, Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Shigella, Serratia
    • some are pathogens
  23. Order: Pasteurellales
    • small non-motile parasites of vertebrates
    • Pasteurella & Haemophilis
  24. Class: S-Proteobacteria
    • chemoorganoheterotroph
    • Order: Deslufovibrionales - anaerobic, dissimillatory S reducers, Use S or SO4 2- as e- acceptor, important in S cycle
    • Bdellovibrio - bacteriovorous bacterium, chemoorganoheterotrophs
    • Order: Myxobacteria - gliding - fruiting bacteria, chemoorgaoheterotroph, spores in fruiting body
  25. Class: B-Proteobacteria
    • chemoheterotroph, chemolithotroph, photoautotroph
    • Order: Neisseriales - Gram -, non motile, aerobic, chemoorganoheterotrophic cocci
    • Neisseria gonorrhoeae & N. meningitidis
  26. Order: Burkholderiales
    • aerobic
    • Alcaligenes, Bordetella (whooping cough)
    • Some sheathed bacteria - sheath attach cell to surfaces (Fe, Mn), aquatic & sewage treatment, Leptothrix
  27. Order: Nitrosomonadales
    • chemolithotroph
    • Nitrifying bacteria - oxidize NH4+ or NO2- -> NO3-
    • Nitrosomonas & Nitrosococcus
    • colorless sulfur bacteria - oxidize H2S, deposit S inside or outside cell, Thiobacillus
  28. Class Y-Proteobacteria
    • largest group w/ some best know bacteria
    • wide variety of metabolism - photosynthetic, many important chemoorganoheterotrophs
  29. Purple Sulfur Bacteria
    • photosynthetic
    • anaerobic
    • oxidize H2S to S deposit in cell
    • Chromatium
  30. Other Thiotrichales - non fruiting gliding bacteria
    • S oxidizing
    • Beggiotoa
    • Thiothrix
  31. Class: E-Proteobacteria
    • smalles group
    • curved or straight rod
    • Campylobacter - gastroenteritis
    • Helicobacter - stomach ulcers
  32. Class: Mollicutes - Mycoplasmas
    • no cell wall (penicillin resistant)
    • very small < 0.9 um
    • once thought to be virus
    • smalles genome 580kb, 482 genes
    • Genome sequence in 1995 in project to see what smallest genome to live would be
  33. Mycoplasmas
    • Habitat - soil, water, pathogens of plants & animals
    • Mycoplasma pneumoniae - atypical pheumonia
    • M. Urealytica - STD in humans
    • Plant diseases - lethal yellowing of coconut palms
  34. Class: Clostridia
    • Clostridium - gram +, anaerobic, spore forming rod
    • C. botulinum - boulism
    • C. perfringens - gas gangrene & food poisoning
    • C. tetani - tetanus
    • C. difficile - diarrhea
    • Epulopiscium - giant bacterium
    • Veillonella - anaerobes in mouth & digestive tract of humans/mammals
  35. Class: Bacilli
    • Order: Bacillales - gram + endospore forming rods, aerobic or facultative anaerobic, motile
    • Bacillus: B. anthracis - anthrax
    • B. cereus - food poison
    • B. thuringiensis - insect protein toxin
    • some make antibiotics
    • Staphylococcus
    • some human pathogens
    • S. aureus - food poison & skin infection
    • Order: Lactobacillales - large genus, non motile, non sporing, rods or coccobacilli, lactic acid fermentation, Milk - spoilage & cheese production
    • Leuconostoc & Streptococcus
    • S. pyogenes - strep throat & other infections
  36. Patterns of Cocci
    • Single
    • Diplococci (pair)
    • Tetrads (4's)
    • Sarcinia (4's layered like cube)
    • Streptococci (chains)
    • Staphylococci (grape like clusters)
  37. Actinomycetes
    • Strptomyces - large genus, aerobes, antibiotics (Amphotericin B, Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin, Neomycin, Nystatin, Streptomycin, Tetrcycline), decompose (lignin, chitin, wax, keratin), smell of moist earth (geosmin)
    • Micrococcus - cocci (tetrads), pigmented (yellow, orange, red), normal flora of human skin
    • Corynebacteria - Norcardia, opportunistic infections of lungs, CNS & other organs human/animals, Mycobacterium - acid fast, high wax cell walls, M. leprae - leprosy, M. tuberculosis - tuberculosis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae - diphtheria, club shaped cells, Paisade
  38. Eukaryotic microorganisms
    • Fungi
    • Slime molds
    • Protozoa
    • Algae
  39. Fungi
    Eurkaryotic, chemoorganoheterotroph, Saprotrophic - nutrients from non living organic matter, Pathogenic - nutrition from living organism, chitin cell wall (polymer of N-acetylglucoseamine), usually for hyphae (cylindrical cells, tip growth), Mass of hyphae (mycelium), reproduce by spores (sexual & asexual), often dimorphic
  40. Yeasts
    • single celled fungi
    • lost or alternate to hypal stage
  41. Fungal Classification - Kingdom: Fungi
    • Division Chytridlomycota
    • Division Zygomycota
    • Division Ascomycota
    • Division Basidiomycota
    • Division Glomeromycota
    • Division Microsporidia
    • classification based on spore type & DNA sequence
  42. Division Chytridiomycota
    chitin cell wall, asexual zoospores (single flagellum), Rhizophydium sphaerotheca, Thallus, divides to produce zoospores, some chytirds have sexual stage (flagellated gametes, Allomyces)
  43. Division Zygomycota
    parasites & saprotrophs, haploid non-septate hyphae, coenocytic, chitin cell wall, asexual spores in sporangium, sexual spore - zygospore
  44. Division Ascomycota
    • sac fungi, asexual spores (conidia), sexual spores (ascospores in ascus), saprotrophic, many plant parasites, many hyphal forms (some yeasts), septate hyphae, 1n hyphae w/ dif mating types (+)(-) fuse, dikaryon (cell w/ 2 haploid nuclei), fertilization, zygote, meiosis (4 haploid spores, 2(+)2(-), mitosis, 8 spores in ascus)
    • Saccharomyces - Baker's yeast - unicellular ascomycete, sexual & asexual spores
  45. Division Basidiomycota
    club fungi, sexual spores (basidiospores on basidium), mushrooms, dikaryotic hyphae
  46. Division Glomeromycota
    • Mycorrhizal symbionts w/ plants
    • fungus provides nutrients for plant & plant provides carbs to fungus
    • only asexual reproduction
  47. Division Microsporidia
    long confused taxonomy, formerly classified as protist, obligate intracellular parasite of animals, lack mitochondria (peroxisomes), Polar tube (penetrates host plasma membrane to infect cell)
  48. Division Deuteromycota
    no longer considered a division, imperfect fungi, no sexual stages, Asexual spores (conidia), DNA allos classification - most Ascomycetes (Penicillium & Aspergillus) & Basidiomycetes
  49. Water Molds
    • Division: Oomycota
    • Kingdom: Chromista or Stramenopiles
    • hyphae
    • cellulose cell walls
    • coenocytic (no septa)
    • habitat - soil & water
    • flagellated zoospores
    • Saprolegnia - opportunistic animal pathogen
    • Phytophtora infestans - Irish potato famine/blight of potato
  50. Slime Molds
    • Division: Acrasiomycota - cellular slime molds, free living soil amoebae, pseudoplasmodium formed by aggregation of amoebae (some cells become stalk, some spores)
    • Dictyostellum discoidium
    • Division: Myxomycota - plasmodial slime molds, free living haploid soil amoebo-flagellate, two amoebo-flagellates fuse to make zygote, zygote nucleus divides (no cytokinesis), plasmodium (giant cell w/ millions of nuclei), migrates, spores
    • Physarum polycephalum
  51. Viruses
    • obligate intracellular parasites
    • no cellular structure or metabolism
    • many can pass thru membrane filter
    • small - some <10nm
    • Composition - nucleic acid, protein, some w/ layers of lipid or carbs
    • can be crystallized
    • cannot replicate w/o host cell
    • not considered alive
    • specific for host
    • Viruses infect each domain
  52. Virus Structure
    • usually cannot be seen in light microscope need EM
    • Capsid - protein coat
    • Capsid symmetry - Helical (helix of protein), Icosahedra (20 sides), Enveloped, Complex
  53. Enveloped Virus
    • membrane derived from host cell
    • around helical or icosahedral capsid
    • virus proteins in envelope (spikes) allow virus to enter cell
  54. Complex Virus
    • Pox virus
    • Bacteriophage - combined helical & icosahedral
  55. Nucleic acids
    • RNA
    • DNA
    • single or double stranded DNA/RNA
  56. Viruses of Bacteria & Archaea
    • Bacteriophage - infect bacteria
    • most are DNA viruses
    • icosahedral, helical, complex, a few enveloped
    • Phage attach to host by binding to flagella, pili, or cell wall
  57. Bacteriophage T4
    • infects E. coli
    • lytic cycle
    • Complex capsid - elongated icosahedral head, helical tail, base plate & tail fibers
    • DNA injected
    • E. coli DNA degraded (2 min)
    • Phage mRNA made
    • Phage DNA replicated (5 min)
    • Phage proteins made
    • Virus particles assembled
    • Lysis
  58. Animal viruses classification
    • Capsid morphology
    • Nucleic acid content
    • Genetic relatedness
  59. Entry of virus into cell
    • attachment to receptor
    • fusion of viral and cell membranes
    • endocytosis
  60. Release of Enveloped viruses
    • pick up some host cell membrane
    • budding
  61. Viruses & Cancer
    • Oncogenes - gene that transform norm cell into tumor
    • 7 types of human cancer caused -
    • Epstein-Barr virus - Burkitt's lymphoma & nasopharyngal carcinoma
    • Hepatits B & C - liver cancer
    • Human Papilloma - cervical cancer
    • HTLV - leukemia
    • KS Herpes - Kaposi's sarcoma
    • Merkel Cell Polyoma - Merkle cell sarcoma
  62. Latent infections
    • viral DNA incorporated into host chromosomes
    • remain latent for years
    • can be activated & cause symptoms (Herpes & HIV)
  63. Plant Viruses
    • wide variety infect plants - DNA or RNA, helical/icosahedral, enveloped & non enveloped
    • many transmitted by insects
  64. Tobacco Mosaic Virus
    • helical ss-RNA virus
    • replicates in cells
    • causes yellow lesions by inhibiting chlorophyll synthesis
    • crystalline mass
  65. Fungal & Algal Viruses
    • Fungal - viruses infecting Penicillium & Aspergillus (dsDNA), latent
    • Algal - most know from EM
  66. Insect Viruses
    • Iridiovirdae - icosahedral head, dsDNA, infects insect larvae, virus crystals cause iridescence
    • possible biological control
  67. Viroids
    infectious ssRNA, plant diseases, circular RNA 250-370 nucleotides, found in nucleus, potato spindle tuber disease
  68. Prions
    • infectious proteins (no nucleic acid), cause degenerative neurological disorders
    • animals diseases - scrapie (sheep/goats), bovine spongiform (BSE) mad cow disease
    • named after Stanley Pruisner (nobel prize)
  69. Human Prion Disease
    • Kuru (New Guinea)
    • CJD - Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease
    • Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker Syndrome (GSS)
    • Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI)
    • infections progress slowly
    • Symptoms - dementia, insomnia, uncontrolled laughing, lack of motor control
  70. Prion Chemistry
    • Prion Protein (PrP) coded for by nuclear gene
    • Membrane protein of neurons
    • mutated gene has less a-helix more b-pleated sheet
    • second conformation more stable
    • converts norm to other form
    • resists heat & acid

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