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signal transduction pathway
a sequence of molecular events and chemical reactions that lead to cell response to a signal.
signals that diffuse to and affect the cells that make them.
EX- cancer cells on normal cells. reproducing the cells uncontrollably.
signals that diffuse and affect nearby cells.
EX- a neurotransmitter made by one nerve and diffuses to the next and stimulates it
A signal transduction pathway needs?
- a signal
- a receptor
- a response
function- transfers phosphate group from ATP to another molecule (an amino acid)
the second component of a signal transduction pathway
A change in the responders is key because??
- the signal outside has trasduced to a protien
- the responder can act (ex-bind)
- the signal is amplified (conversion of one molecule to many of another)
Steps in a typical eukaryotic signal transduction pathway
- a receptor protein changes after being signaled
- a change in the receptor protien activates protein kinase, causing a transfer of a phosphate group (ATP to target protein)
- this transfer alters the responder protein function
- the signal is amplified
- a protein that bind to DNA is activated
- the expression on certain genes is turned on or off
- cell activity is altered