Bio Lecture Ch 7.1

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  1. signal transduction pathway
    a sequence of molecular events and chemical reactions that lead to cell response to a signal.
  2. Autocrine
    signals that diffuse to and affect the cells that make them.

    EX- cancer cells on normal cells. reproducing the cells uncontrollably.
  3. Paracrine
    signals that diffuse and affect nearby cells.

    EX- a neurotransmitter made by one nerve and diffuses to the next and stimulates it
  4. A signal transduction pathway needs?
    • a signal
    • a receptor
    • a response
  5. Protein Kinase
    an enzyme

    function- transfers phosphate group from ATP to another molecule (an amino acid)
  6. Responder
    the second component of a signal transduction pathway
  7. A change in the responders is key because??
    • the signal outside has trasduced to a protien
    • the responder can act (ex-bind)
    • the signal is amplified (conversion of one molecule to many of another)
  8. Steps in a typical eukaryotic signal transduction pathway
    • a receptor protein changes after being signaled
    • a change in the receptor protien activates protein kinase, causing a transfer of a phosphate group (ATP to target protein)
    • this transfer alters the responder protein function
    • the signal is amplified
    • a protein that bind to DNA is activated
    • the expression on certain genes is turned on or off
    • cell activity is altered
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43545
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Bio Lecture Ch 7.1
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Chapter 7.1, What are signals and how do cells respond to them? KEY TERMS
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