After starting chapter 1, ashton wants to study butteflies using the scientific method. Which of these represents a step or steps in the scientific method?
Ashton has performed steps in the scientific method with each of these activities.
A theory can be defined as:
the basis for relationships among facts and principles.
Joaquin has been assigned a primary research project in his psychology class. He is to observe student behavior during a learning task and attempt to form a _____. In order to do this, he must be able to describe principles and events, and how they may be related
A theory _____ an outcome or relationship.
Allie has developed a theory concerning test grades. She believes that there is a relationship between her frequency of study and the resulting grade. In order to test her theory, she has to design a _____.
In surveys of adolescents, adolescents claim that they begin smoking cigarettes because of peer pressure. In observing adolescent groups, however, you rarely see an adolescent offer another student cigarette or ask another student whether they would like to smoke. You predict that peer pressure is NOT the primary reason that adolescents smoke cigarettes. You have just formulated a _____.
Drake has hypothesized that more freshman engage in "head scratching" than seniors. In order to test this hypothesis, he has to provide a specific description of the behavior which he would count as "one head scratching." Would scratching the ear or the forehead be included? What if the student "scratched his head" against a book or door? Would these also be counted in the study? This specific description of the behavior to be counted is called:
if a psychologist were to study "love", she would need to have a _____ love. Without this specific information, the hypothesis could not be tested.
operational definition for
It has been proposed that students have difficulty returning to their academic schedule after a holiday or break. Specifically, it has been predicted that there will be more student absences on the Monday following spring break than on the Friday prior to spring break. The first statement describes the _____, while the second is the _____.
An initial project indicated that elderly chimps could be taught new tasks if given sufficient time to respond and repetition to compensate for sensory limitations. Dr. Rainer used the results of previous studies, or _____, to increase confidence in similar findings among elderly patients in an assisted living environment.
The small group of participants observed in a research study are referred to as the:
"This cannot be the real opinion of the entire student body! She didn't ask me!" Haley complained. Her psychology teacher explained that
a representative sample of responses can indicate the view of the majority.
Variables are the elements of research which:
The history class has agreed to be subjects of research for psychology students. Half of the class has been asked to study for the next test while listening to a classical music. The remaining students were asked to study in a silent environment. The test scores of the two groups will be compared. _____ is a variable.
The test scores
Archival research, naturalistic observation, survey research, and case studies are _____ research.
Dr. Jimmand studies the adjustment of 20 Bosnian students to college life in the United States by living in the dorm and attending classes with them. Dr. Jimman is using ____.
What is an example of research using the survey method?
Dr. Frank asks people how many hours of TV they watch per week.
What is an example of a case study?
Conducting a series of interviews over a year with an anxiety-disordered student.
A Correlational study is used to:
determine the relationship between variables.
What best describes a correlational study?
A research that studies the naturally occuring relationship between two or more variables.
Professor Jordan has suggested to his students that a correlation exists between the number of hours spent in serious study and one's grade on the final exam. He would like his students to improve their test scores by increasing study time. The professor is describing a:
"The problem with drinking coffee in the evening," complained Saundra, "is that it interferes with my ability to fall asleep. My minds keeps racing, but my body is so tired!" Saundra recognizes _____ between caffeine intake and sleep
Archie wants to see if there is any relation between students' bedtimes and their grades in school. In order to determine the relationship between variables, it is necessary for him to:
manipulate one of the variables.
Random assignment of participants is important in order to ensure:
groups have equal and balanced composition.
Why do experiments allow conclusions about cause and effect relationships?
Researchers manipulate one variable and observe its effects on the other variable.
Dr. Gillespie has two groups in her experiment. She places each participant in a group by flipping a coin-heads means Group A, tails means Group B. Dr. Gillespie has satisfied the requirement of:
In experimental research, the group which receives no treatment is called the:
Neither the subjects nor the experimenter knew which group has received the treatment. This could be considered a:
Skinner discovered that a pigeon will peck at a button more often if the pecking is rewarded with a food pellet that if it is not rewarded at all. In Skinner's study, the amount of pecking is the:
Skinner discovered that a pigeon will peck at a button more often if the pecking is rewarded with a food pellet that if it is not rewarded at all. In Skinner's study, the food pellet is the:
Sonja believes the pill her doctor gave her has cured her of her anxiety discorder, even though the pill contained no active ingredients. Sonja's belief is an example of the _____ effect.
Mean, median, and standard deviation are example of _____ statistics.
Adding up participants' score on a variable and dividing by the number of participants gives the _____.
Five students had the following scores on psychologist test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The mean of these five scores is _____.
Five students had the following scores on psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The median of these five scores is _____.