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A form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space
All forms of electromagnetic radiation together
Quantum of Energy
- A minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom
- E = hv
What did Planck suggest?
An object emits energy in small, specific packets - quanta
- Particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass
- Carrying a quantum of energy
Define ground state and excited state.
- Ground state - the lowest energy state of an atom
- Excited state - atom has higher potential energy than ground state
What is the line-emission spectrum?
Four bands of light produced when a narrow beam of emitted light is shined through a prism
What is the continuous spectrum?
The emission of a continuous range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation
What was Bohr's experiment?
- Gas discharge tubes
- Atomic emission spectra
- Only certain colors = specific wavelength of light/frequency and specific energy
What was Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom?
- Electron can circle nucleus only in orbits
- When in given orbit, electron neither gaining nor losing energy
- Can move to a higher-energy orbit by gaining amount of energy equal to difference in energy between hight-energy orbit and initial lower-energy orbit
What is emission?
- When electron falls to lower energy level
- Photon emitted
- High to low
What is absorption?
- Energy must be added to atom in order to move electron from lower energy level to higher energy level
- Low to high
What are the shortcomings of Bohr's model?
- Did not explain spectra of atoms with more than one electron
- Did not explain chemical behavior of atoms
Quantized energy levels
Only certain electron energies are allowed
What did De Broglie suggest?
Electrons could be considered waves confined to space around atomic nucleus
What is the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle?
- It is impossible to determine simultaneously both position and velocity of an electron or any other particle
- Choose between electron's position or energy
What is the Schrodinger Wave Equation?
Electrons in atomic orbitals also have quantized energies
What is a quantum number?
Specific properties of atomic orbitals and properties of electrons in orbitals
What is the Aufbau Principle?
- An electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it
- Exceptions - copper (Cu), chromium (Cr)
What is Pauli's exclusion principle?
No two electrons in same atom can have same set of four quantum numbers
What is Hund's rule?
- Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital occupied by second electron
- All electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have same spin state
What are the similarities and differences of Bohr and Schrodinger's models?
- Both had quantized energies, nuclei, atomic spectra
- Schrodinger's applied to many different atoms and thought of electrons as waves
- Bohr's specific to hydrogen; electrons were thought of as particles