Chemistry - Electron Arrangement

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Chemistry - Electron Arrangement
2010-10-19 22:10:44
MP1 Semester Chemistry

Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms
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  1. Electromagnetic radiation
    A form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space
  2. Electromagnetic spectrum
    All forms of electromagnetic radiation together
  3. Quantum of Energy
    • A minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom
    • E = hv
  4. What did Planck suggest?
    An object emits energy in small, specific packets - quanta
  5. Photon
    • Particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass
    • Carrying a quantum of energy
  6. Define ground state and excited state.
    • Ground state - the lowest energy state of an atom
    • Excited state - atom has higher potential energy than ground state
  7. What is the line-emission spectrum?
    Four bands of light produced when a narrow beam of emitted light is shined through a prism
  8. What is the continuous spectrum?
    The emission of a continuous range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation
  9. What was Bohr's experiment?
    • Gas discharge tubes
    • Atomic emission spectra
    • Only certain colors = specific wavelength of light/frequency and specific energy
  10. What was Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom?
    • Electron can circle nucleus only in orbits
    • When in given orbit, electron neither gaining nor losing energy
    • Can move to a higher-energy orbit by gaining amount of energy equal to difference in energy between hight-energy orbit and initial lower-energy orbit
  11. What is emission?
    • When electron falls to lower energy level
    • Photon emitted
    • High to low
  12. What is absorption?
    • Energy must be added to atom in order to move electron from lower energy level to higher energy level
    • Low to high
  13. What are the shortcomings of Bohr's model?
    • Did not explain spectra of atoms with more than one electron
    • Did not explain chemical behavior of atoms
  14. Quantized energy levels
    Only certain electron energies are allowed
  15. What did De Broglie suggest?
    Electrons could be considered waves confined to space around atomic nucleus
  16. What is the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle?
    • It is impossible to determine simultaneously both position and velocity of an electron or any other particle
    • Choose between electron's position or energy
  17. What is the Schrodinger Wave Equation?
    Electrons in atomic orbitals also have quantized energies
  18. What is a quantum number?
    Specific properties of atomic orbitals and properties of electrons in orbitals
  19. What is the Aufbau Principle?
    • An electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it
    • Exceptions - copper (Cu), chromium (Cr)
  20. What is Pauli's exclusion principle?
    No two electrons in same atom can have same set of four quantum numbers
  21. What is Hund's rule?
    • Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital occupied by second electron
    • All electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have same spin state
  22. What are the similarities and differences of Bohr and Schrodinger's models?
    • Both had quantized energies, nuclei, atomic spectra
    • Schrodinger's applied to many different atoms and thought of electrons as waves
    • Bohr's specific to hydrogen; electrons were thought of as particles