Exam 3 Psychology
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What are the 3 fundamental processes or memory?
What happens in the shallow level of processing?
basic features of stimuli are analyzed
What happens in the intermediate level of processing?
stimulus is recognized and given a label
What happens in the deepest level of processing?
meaning is understood and associations are made
What is storage?
how info is retained over time and how it is represented in memory
What is the Atkinson-Shiffrin theory?
memory storage involves three separate systems
How long is a sensory memory?
a fraction of a second or several seconds
What's an echoic memory?
an auditory sensory memory that's retained for several seconds
What's an iconic memory?
a visual sensory memory that is retained for one-fourth of a second
How long is short-term memory?
up to 30 seconds
arranging stimuli into a memorable sequence in order to recall
conscious repetition of information
What's eidetic imagery?
What's working memory?
mental workbench where information is manipulated and assembled to help an individual perform other cognitive tasks
Phonological loop is based on__________
Visuospatial working memory stores__________
visual and spatial info
Central executive memory integrates_____________
phonological, visuospatial and long-term memory
How long is long-term memory?
up to a lifetime
What's explicit memory?
conscious recollection of information that can be verbally communicated
What's episodic memory?
the where, when and what retention of information
What's semantic memory?
knowledge of the world
What's implicit memory?
nondeclarative memory of behavior that's affected by prior experience without being consciously recollected
What's procedural memory?
an implicit memory process that activates info in storage to help remember new info
the way automatic processes impact social behavior
How do hierarchies work?
items are organized from general to specific classes
What's a semantic networks?
memory elaboration through having multiple connections to the info
What are schemas?
preexisting mental concept that is the framework that helps organize and interpret info
What's a script?
schema for an event
What's a connectionist network?
parallel distributed processing where memory is stored throughout the brain in connections among neurons
How does long-term potentiation work?
two neurons are activated at the same time and the connection between them may be strengthened
Which brain functions work with explicit memory?
What brain structures work with implicit memory?
What's the serial position effect?
items at the beginning and end of a list are easier to recall than the middle terms
What's the primacy effect?
having a better recall for items at the beginning of a list
What's the recency effect?
having a better recall for items at the end of the list
What are flashbulb memories?
emotionally significant events that are recalled more accurately than everyday events
What are traumatic events memories?
memories of real-life traumas are more accurate and longer-lasting than everyday events
What are repressed memories?
an individual is so traumatized by an event that they forget it and then forget the act of forgetting
What's motivated forgetting?
forgetting because the memory is so painful and anxiety-laden that remembering is intolerable
What's the interference theory?
forgetting takes place because other info interferes with what is to be remembered
What's proactive interference?
material that's learned earlier disrupts the recall of newer material
What's retroactive interference?
material that's learned later disrupts retrieval of info learned earlier
What's the decay theory?
when new info is learned, neurochemical "memory trace" is created but disintegrates over time
What's the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon?
effortful retrieval occurs when confident you know something but cannot pull it out of memory
What's prospective memory?
remembering info about doing something in the future including memory of intentions
Retrospective memory is remembering_________
What's anterograde amnesia?
a memory disorder that affects retention of new info and events
What's retrograde amnesia?
a memory disorder involving memory loss for a segment of the past and not for new events
Exam 3 Psychology
Psychology exam Monday 25th