Exam 3 Psychology

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Exam 3 Psychology
2010-10-19 22:42:34

Psychology exam Monday 25th
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  1. What are the 3 fundamental processes or memory?
    • encoding
    • storage
    • retrieval
  2. What happens in the shallow level of processing?
    basic features of stimuli are analyzed
  3. What happens in the intermediate level of processing?
    stimulus is recognized and given a label
  4. What happens in the deepest level of processing?
    meaning is understood and associations are made
  5. What is storage?
    how info is retained over time and how it is represented in memory
  6. What is the Atkinson-Shiffrin theory?
    memory storage involves three separate systems
  7. How long is a sensory memory?
    a fraction of a second or several seconds
  8. What's an echoic memory?
    an auditory sensory memory that's retained for several seconds
  9. What's an iconic memory?
    a visual sensory memory that is retained for one-fourth of a second
  10. How long is short-term memory?
    up to 30 seconds
  11. What's chunking?
    arranging stimuli into a memorable sequence in order to recall
  12. What's rehearsal?
    conscious repetition of information
  13. What's eidetic imagery?
    photographic memory
  14. What's working memory?
    mental workbench where information is manipulated and assembled to help an individual perform other cognitive tasks
  15. Phonological loop is based on__________
  16. Visuospatial working memory stores__________
    visual and spatial info
  17. Central executive memory integrates_____________
    phonological, visuospatial and long-term memory
  18. How long is long-term memory?
    up to a lifetime
  19. What's explicit memory?
    conscious recollection of information that can be verbally communicated
  20. What's episodic memory?
    the where, when and what retention of information
  21. What's semantic memory?
    knowledge of the world
  22. What's implicit memory?
    nondeclarative memory of behavior that's affected by prior experience without being consciously recollected
  23. What's procedural memory?
    skill memory
  24. What's priming?
    an implicit memory process that activates info in storage to help remember new info
  25. What's ideomotoring?
    the way automatic processes impact social behavior
  26. How do hierarchies work?
    items are organized from general to specific classes
  27. What's a semantic networks?
    memory elaboration through having multiple connections to the info
  28. What are schemas?
    preexisting mental concept that is the framework that helps organize and interpret info
  29. What's a script?
    schema for an event
  30. What's a connectionist network?
    parallel distributed processing where memory is stored throughout the brain in connections among neurons
  31. How does long-term potentiation work?
    two neurons are activated at the same time and the connection between them may be strengthened
  32. Which brain functions work with explicit memory?
    • hippocampus
    • frontal lobes
    • temporal lobes
    • amygdale
  33. What brain structures work with implicit memory?
  34. What's the serial position effect?
    items at the beginning and end of a list are easier to recall than the middle terms
  35. What's the primacy effect?
    having a better recall for items at the beginning of a list
  36. What's the recency effect?
    having a better recall for items at the end of the list
  37. What are flashbulb memories?
    emotionally significant events that are recalled more accurately than everyday events
  38. What are traumatic events memories?
    memories of real-life traumas are more accurate and longer-lasting than everyday events
  39. What are repressed memories?
    an individual is so traumatized by an event that they forget it and then forget the act of forgetting
  40. What's motivated forgetting?
    forgetting because the memory is so painful and anxiety-laden that remembering is intolerable
  41. What's the interference theory?
    forgetting takes place because other info interferes with what is to be remembered
  42. What's proactive interference?
    material that's learned earlier disrupts the recall of newer material
  43. What's retroactive interference?
    material that's learned later disrupts retrieval of info learned earlier
  44. What's the decay theory?
    when new info is learned, neurochemical "memory trace" is created but disintegrates over time
  45. What's the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon?
    TOT state
    effortful retrieval occurs when confident you know something but cannot pull it out of memory
  46. What's prospective memory?
    remembering info about doing something in the future including memory of intentions
  47. Retrospective memory is remembering_________
    the past
  48. What's anterograde amnesia?
    a memory disorder that affects retention of new info and events
  49. What's retrograde amnesia?
    a memory disorder involving memory loss for a segment of the past and not for new events