Anatomy Ch 26

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tlcolumna
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43620
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Anatomy Ch 26
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2010-10-20 00:33:55
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Anatomy Urinary System
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Anatomy The Urinary System
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  1. What are the functions of the Urinary System?
    • 1. Regulating plasma concentrations of ions
    • 2. Regulating blood volume and pressure by adjusting the volume of water lost and releasing
    • 3. Help stabilize blood ph
    • 4. Conserving nutrient
    • 5. Elimitating organic waster
    • 6. Synthesizing calcitriol.
  2. What does the Urinary System include?
    It includes kidneys, ureters, and urinary bladder.
  3. What does the kidney produce?
    Urine
  4. What is Urine?
    A fluid containing water, ions, and soluble
  5. What happens during urination?
    Urine is forces out of the body
  6. What position of the kidneys in the abdominal cavity is maintained by?
    • 1. Overlying peritoneum
    • 2. Contact with adjacent visceral organ
    • 3. Supporting connective tissues
  7. What are the threee concentric layer of the connective tissue are?
    • Renal Capsule
    • Adipose Capsule
    • Renal Fascia
  8. What is renal Capsule?
    Covers the outer surface of the organ
  9. What is Adipose Capsule?
    It surrounds the renal capsule
  10. What is Renal Fascia?
    It anchors the kidney to surrounding the structures
  11. The ureter and renal blood vesel are attached to the ______ of the kidney.
    Hilus
  12. The inner layer of the renal capsule lines the ____.
    Renal Sinus
  13. What is the kidney divided into?
    • Outer Renal Cortex
    • Central renal Medulla
    • Inner Renal Sinus
  14. The medulla contains 6-18 what?
    Renal Pyramids
  15. The tips of the Renal Pyramids or Renal Paillae project into the what?
    They project into the renal Sinus
  16. What is composed of cortex separate adjacent pyraminds?
    Renal Columns
  17. A _________ contains a renal pyramind, the overlying area of renal cortex and adjacent tissues of the renal columns.
    Renal Lobe
  18. The _______ are continuous with the _______.
    Minor Calyces; Major Calyces
  19. The spaces lead into the renal sinus, which is continuous with the ______.
    Ureter
  20. The Vasculature of the kidneys includes what, that to the afferent arterioles that uspply the nephrons?
    Renal, Segmental, interlobar, arcuate and interlobular arteries
  21. From nephrons, blood flows into the _______, _____, ______, and ______.
    Interlobular, arcuate, interlobar, renal veins
  22. What are the kidneys and ureter innervated by?
    Renal
  23. What regulates glomerular blood flow and pressure, stimulates renin release and accelerates sodium ion and water reabsorption.
    Sympathetic activation
  24. The ______ consists of _______ that empties into the ___________.
    Nephron; Renal Tubule; Collecting system and renal corpuscle
  25. What is Nephron?
    It is the basic function unit fo the kidney
  26. From the ______ , the ______ travels through the __________, __________, and __________.
    Renal Corpuscle; tubular fluid; Proximal Convoluted tuble (PCT), Loop of Henle, and Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
  27. Then flow throught what three things to reach the renal minor calyx.
    Connecting tubule, collecting duct, papillary duct
  28. How much percent of the nephrons are cortical nephrons found with the cortex.
    85%
  29. The loops of Henle are short and the ______ provides blood to the _______ that surround the renal tubules.
    Efferent Arteriole; Peritubular
  30. What is closer to the medulla, with their loops of Henle extending deep into the renal pyramids.
    Juxtamedullary Nephrons
  31. What are Nephrones responsible for?
    Productions of filtrate, reabsorption of organic nutrients, water, and ions.
  32. The Renal corpuscle contains the capillary knot of the what?
    Glomerulus and Bowman's Capsule
  33. At the glomerulus, _____ of the visceral epithelium wrap their "feet" around the capillaries.
    Podocytes
  34. The ______ of the _______ are separated by naroow ______.
    Pedicels; podocytes; filtrations slits
  35. The Capsular space separates the ______ and ______.
    Parietal and Visceral Epithelia
  36. The lamina densa of the basal lamina is what?
    Unusally thick
  37. Blood arrives at the _____ of the renal corpuscle via the afferent arteriole and departs in the _________.
    Vascular pole; efferent arteriole
  38. From the efferent arteriole blood enters the peritubular capillaries and the _____ that follow the loops of the Henle in the medulla.
    Vesa Recta
  39. The proximal convoluted tubule actively reasborbs what?
    Nutrients, ions, plasna proteins, and electrolytes from the tublar fuild
  40. The loop of Henle includes a _______ and an ________; each limb contains a __________ and thin segment.
    • Descending limb; ascending lumb
    • Thick segment; thin segment
  41. The ascending lumb deliver what?
    Fluid to the distal convouluted tubule
  42. What are passively transported out of the ascending limb.
    Sodium ions
  43. Reabsorption in the PCT and the loop of Henle Reclaims all what?
    The organic nutrients, 85 percent of the water, and more than 90 percent of the Na and Cl ions.
  44. What is the an important site for the active secretion of ions, acides and other materials and the reabsorption of sodium ino and adjuting osmotic concentration and balance?
    Distal convoluted tubule.
  45. The juxtaglomerular apparatus is composed of the ______, _________, and _________.
    Macula Densa, juxtaglomerular cells, extraglomerular mesangial cells.
  46. The juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes what two hormones?
    Renin and Erythropoietin
  47. What does the DCT opens into?
    Collection system
  48. The collecting system consists of _______, ________, and _______.
    Connecting tubules, collecting ducts, and papillary ducts
  49. Transporting fluid from the nephron to the renal pelvis, the collecting system adjusts what?
    The osmotic concentrations and volume.
  50. When does tubular fluid modification and urine production end?
    When the fluid enters the minor calyx in the renal sinus.
  51. The rest of the urinary system is responsible for what?
    Transportiing, storing, eliminating the urine.
  52. The ureters extend from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder and are responsible for what?
    Transporting urine to the bladder.
  53. The wall of each ureter consist of what?
    • Inner mucosal layer
    • Middle muscular layer
    • Outer connective tissue layer
  54. What is a hollow msuclar organ that serves as a storage reservior of urine?
    Urinary Bladder
  55. The bladder is stabilized by the what?
    Median umbilical ligament or urachus and the lateral umbilical ligaments
  56. Internal features include the ____, the ___ and the ________.
    Trigone, neck, and internal urethral sphincter
  57. The mucosal lining contains prominent what?
    Rugae
  58. The Female urethral linging is what?
    Usually a transitional epithelium near the urinary bladder; the rest is usually a stratified squamous epthelium.
  59. The urethral lining of the males carries from?
    A transitional epithelium at the urinary bladder, to a stratified columnar or a pseudostratified epithelium, and then to stratified squamous epithelium near the external urethral orifice.
  60. The process of urination is coordinated by the __________.
    Micturition reflex.
  61. What is Mictuition reflex?
    it is initiated by stetch receptors in the bladder wall.
  62. What involves coupling this reflex with the voluntary relaxation of the external urethral sphincter compressing bladder?
    Voluntary Urination
  63. What is usually associated with increased kidney problems?
    Aging
  64. Age-related changes in the urinary system include what?
    • 1. A declining number of functional nephrons
    • 2. reduced glomerular filtration
    • 3. Reduced sensitivity to ADH
    • 4. Problems with micturition reflex
  65. What is a Pylogram?
    It is diagnostic test for kidney stone an image obtained by taking an X-ray of the kidneys after a radipaque compound has been administered.
  66. What is a technigue in which an artificial membrane regualtes the compositions of the blood.
    Hemodialysis
  67. What is solid structures formed from calcium deposits, magnesium, or crystals of uric acid in the kidneys?
    Calculi
  68. What is a condition where in kidney stones are present in the kdineys?
    Nephrolithiasis
  69. What is Urethritis?
    An inflammation of the urethral wall
  70. What is prostatitis?
    A Chronic or acute irritation of the prostate gland
  71. What is Automatic bladder?
    A condition in which the micturition reflex remains intact, but the person cannot prevent the reflexive emptying of the bladder
  72. What is inflammation of the lining of the urinary bladder?
    Cystitis
  73. What is an inability to control urination voluntarily?
    Incontinence
  74. What is Dysuria?
    A condition of pain upon urination.

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