Anatomy Ch 26
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What are the functions of the Urinary System?
- 1. Regulating plasma concentrations of ions
- 2. Regulating blood volume and pressure by adjusting the volume of water lost and releasing
- 3. Help stabilize blood ph
- 4. Conserving nutrient
- 5. Elimitating organic waster
- 6. Synthesizing calcitriol.
What does the Urinary System include?
It includes kidneys, ureters, and urinary bladder.
What does the kidney produce?
What is Urine?
A fluid containing water, ions, and soluble
What happens during urination?
Urine is forces out of the body
What position of the kidneys in the abdominal cavity is maintained by?
- 1. Overlying peritoneum
- 2. Contact with adjacent visceral organ
- 3. Supporting connective tissues
What are the threee concentric layer of the connective tissue are?
- Renal Capsule
- Adipose Capsule
- Renal Fascia
What is renal Capsule?
Covers the outer surface of the organ
What is Adipose Capsule?
It surrounds the renal capsule
What is Renal Fascia?
It anchors the kidney to surrounding the structures
The ureter and renal blood vesel are attached to the ______ of the kidney.
The inner layer of the renal capsule lines the ____.
What is the kidney divided into?
- Outer Renal Cortex
- Central renal Medulla
- Inner Renal Sinus
The medulla contains 6-18 what?
The tips of the Renal Pyramids or Renal Paillae project into the what?
They project into the renal Sinus
What is composed of cortex separate adjacent pyraminds?
A _________ contains a renal pyramind, the overlying area of renal cortex and adjacent tissues of the renal columns.
The _______ are continuous with the _______.
Minor Calyces; Major Calyces
The spaces lead into the renal sinus, which is continuous with the ______.
The Vasculature of the kidneys includes what, that to the afferent arterioles that uspply the nephrons?
Renal, Segmental, interlobar, arcuate and interlobular arteries
From nephrons, blood flows into the _______, _____, ______, and ______.
Interlobular, arcuate, interlobar, renal veins
What are the kidneys and ureter innervated by?
What regulates glomerular blood flow and pressure, stimulates renin release and accelerates sodium ion and water reabsorption.
The ______ consists of _______ that empties into the ___________.
Nephron; Renal Tubule; Collecting system and renal corpuscle
What is Nephron?
It is the basic function unit fo the kidney
From the ______ , the ______ travels through the __________, __________, and __________.
Renal Corpuscle; tubular fluid; Proximal Convoluted tuble (PCT), Loop of Henle, and Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
Then flow throught what three things to reach the renal minor calyx.
Connecting tubule, collecting duct, papillary duct
How much percent of the nephrons are cortical nephrons found with the cortex.
The loops of Henle are short and the ______ provides blood to the _______ that surround the renal tubules.
Efferent Arteriole; Peritubular
What is closer to the medulla, with their loops of Henle extending deep into the renal pyramids.
What are Nephrones responsible for?
Productions of filtrate, reabsorption of organic nutrients, water, and ions.
The Renal corpuscle contains the capillary knot of the what?
Glomerulus and Bowman's Capsule
At the glomerulus, _____ of the visceral epithelium wrap their "feet" around the capillaries.
The ______ of the _______ are separated by naroow ______.
Pedicels; podocytes; filtrations slits
The Capsular space separates the ______ and ______.
Parietal and Visceral Epithelia
The lamina densa of the basal lamina is what?
Blood arrives at the _____ of the renal corpuscle via the afferent arteriole and departs in the _________.
Vascular pole; efferent arteriole
From the efferent arteriole blood enters the peritubular capillaries and the _____ that follow the loops of the Henle in the medulla.
The proximal convoluted tubule actively reasborbs what?
Nutrients, ions, plasna proteins, and electrolytes from the tublar fuild
The loop of Henle includes a _______ and an ________; each limb contains a __________ and thin segment.
- Descending limb; ascending lumb
- Thick segment; thin segment
The ascending lumb deliver what?
Fluid to the distal convouluted tubule
What are passively transported out of the ascending limb.
Reabsorption in the PCT and the loop of Henle Reclaims all what?
The organic nutrients, 85 percent of the water, and more than 90 percent of the Na and Cl ions.
What is the an important site for the active secretion of ions, acides and other materials and the reabsorption of sodium ino and adjuting osmotic concentration and balance?
Distal convoluted tubule.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is composed of the ______, _________, and _________.
Macula Densa, juxtaglomerular cells, extraglomerular mesangial cells.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes what two hormones?
Renin and Erythropoietin
What does the DCT opens into?
The collecting system consists of _______, ________, and _______.
Connecting tubules, collecting ducts, and papillary ducts
Transporting fluid from the nephron to the renal pelvis, the collecting system adjusts what?
The osmotic concentrations and volume.
When does tubular fluid modification and urine production end?
When the fluid enters the minor calyx in the renal sinus.
The rest of the urinary system is responsible for what?
Transportiing, storing, eliminating the urine.
The ureters extend from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder and are responsible for what?
Transporting urine to the bladder.
The wall of each ureter consist of what?
- Inner mucosal layer
- Middle muscular layer
- Outer connective tissue layer
What is a hollow msuclar organ that serves as a storage reservior of urine?
The bladder is stabilized by the what?
Median umbilical ligament or urachus and the lateral umbilical ligaments
Internal features include the ____, the ___ and the ________.
Trigone, neck, and internal urethral sphincter
The mucosal lining contains prominent what?
The Female urethral linging is what?
Usually a transitional epithelium near the urinary bladder; the rest is usually a stratified squamous epthelium.
The urethral lining of the males carries from?
A transitional epithelium at the urinary bladder, to a stratified columnar or a pseudostratified epithelium, and then to stratified squamous epithelium near the external urethral orifice.
The process of urination is coordinated by the __________.
What is Mictuition reflex?
it is initiated by stetch receptors in the bladder wall.
What involves coupling this reflex with the voluntary relaxation of the external urethral sphincter compressing bladder?
What is usually associated with increased kidney problems?
Age-related changes in the urinary system include what?
- 1. A declining number of functional nephrons
- 2. reduced glomerular filtration
- 3. Reduced sensitivity to ADH
- 4. Problems with micturition reflex
What is a Pylogram?
It is diagnostic test for kidney stone an image obtained by taking an X-ray of the kidneys after a radipaque compound has been administered.
What is a technigue in which an artificial membrane regualtes the compositions of the blood.
What is solid structures formed from calcium deposits, magnesium, or crystals of uric acid in the kidneys?
What is a condition where in kidney stones are present in the kdineys?
What is Urethritis?
An inflammation of the urethral wall
What is prostatitis?
A Chronic or acute irritation of the prostate gland
What is Automatic bladder?
A condition in which the micturition reflex remains intact, but the person cannot prevent the reflexive emptying of the bladder
What is inflammation of the lining of the urinary bladder?
What is an inability to control urination voluntarily?
What is Dysuria?
A condition of pain upon urination.
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