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what is metabolism?
sum of all biochemical processes going on in body at any given time
synthesis or reaction that builds up
what type of reaction would cause an increase in energy content of molecule?
nitrogen compounds of body ?
- amino acid
- purine and pyrimidine
how are fructose and galactose transformed?
they are made into glucose by liver
what is transformed to make glucose by liver?
fructose and galactose
in anaerobic condition what is reduced to lactic acid?
In anaerobic condition what does Pyruvic acid do?
reduced to form lactic acid
why do cells synthesize new organic components ?
- perform structural maintenance
- growth and repair
- produce secretions
what nutrient produces most energy per gram when metabolized?
what is chemiosmosis?
ATP generation linking chemical reactions with pumping H+ ions down concentration gradient
What are high density lipoprotiens? (HDL)
lipoprotien carrying most cholesterol from peripheral tissue to liver for excretion
what does deamination produce?
what happens during glycolysis?
molecule of glucose is converted into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid
during protien catabolism the liver converts amino acids (tryptophan) into what ?
where do reactions occur that provide most of the energy for typical cells?
during absorptive state for a diabetic not producing insulin, what would happen?
- 1) synthesis of storage molecules decrease
- 2) blood glucose levels high
- 3) glycerol from adipose tissue converts to glucose by liver
- 4) fatty acid fed into TCA cycle as Acetyl CoA
inside mitochondrion, what is lost by each pyruvic acid molecule?
what are inorganic substances?
minerals that can form buffering systems
why do cells expend energy?
- need to grow
- need to secrete
- need to contract
- need to expand
in what cycle is carbon dioxide of respiration formed?
during TCA cycle
what is lipogenesis?
synthesis of lipid
what is the first choice of an energy source for body?
what happens in electron transport chain?
- 1) coenzymes recieve Hydrogen atom from NADH2 and FADH2
- 2) oxidative phosphorylation takes place and ATP is formed
why is protien catabolism IMPRACTICAL for quick energy source?
- threatens homeostasis at cell and system level
- create toxic by product
- generate ammonia
- requires great deal of energy
why is lipolysis?
breakdown of lipid
what must be present for glycolysis to occur?
- 1) glucose molecule
- 2) appropriate cytoplasmic enzymes
- 3) ATP and ADP
- 4) NAD
what is the bad cholesterol?
primary hormone involved in absorptive state?
how many molecules of ATP formed during glycolysis when each molecule is metabolized and releases energy?
function of citric acid cycle ?
remove hydrogen from organic molecule and transfer to coenzyme
when catabolized, which substance produces most ATP?
1- fatty acid
2- amino acid
3- ketone body
vitamin that is NOT fat soluble?
what acts as intermediary to accept electrons from one molecule and transfers to another molecule?
in cellular respiration, each molecule of glucose that is metabolized makes enough energy to form what?
36 molecules of ATP
what are free fatty acids bound to?
bound to albumin
where does deamination occur?
what nutrient for TCA cycle requires least processing and preperation?
what does transamination produce?
what happens during lipolysis?
triglycerides broken down into glycerol and fatty acid
meaning of "olysis"?
to break down or make smaller
what type of reaction do you have if you convert NAD+ to NADH and H+
lactic acid is produced as a result of what?
chemical reduction of pyruvic acid
why is cholesterol important to human body?
- waterproof skin
- lipid componant of cell membranes
- key constituent of bile
- precurser of several steroid hormones and Vit D3
what are the end products of aerobic oxidation of glucose?
- Carbon Dioxide, Water, Energy
- (CO2, H2O and ATP)
why are lipids important?
provide energy for cells with modest energy demand for skeletal muscle when energy demands are low
what increases in amt during cellular respiration?
what fatty acids is essential and needs to be included in diet, but not synthesized by body?
- linoleic acid
- linolenic acid
what process requires oxygen?
electron transport chain
formation of glycogen
what are essential fatty acids ? examples?
They are needed by body but we dont make them so we have to consume them.
examples: linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid
lipoprotien that carry absorbed lipid from intestinal tract to blood stream
when is urea produced?
during process of ammonia detoxifying
hormones that raise blood glucose?
- human growth hormone
hormone that does NOT raise blood glucose
what are very low density lipoprotiens (VLDL)?
lipoprotien containing triglycerides manufactured by liver and transported to peripheral tissues
what do anabolic reactions do?
synthesize complex molecules from small molecules
what is postabsorptive state?
when body relies on inernal energy reserves to continue meeting energy demands
primary function of lipoprotien?
facilitate lipid transportation
key molecules at metabolic cross roads?
- Acetyl Coenzyme A
- Pyruvic Acid
- Glucose 6 Phosphate
Which body part does not switch to utilizing fatty acid during postabsorptive state?
high density lipoprotien (HDL)?
lipoprotien carrying most cholesterol and phospholipid from peripheral tissue to liver
drug that blocks action of lipoprotien lipase would cause what to happen?
blood levels of VLDL would increase
which lipoprotiens formed in intestinal epithelial cells transport dietary fat?
what vitamin is required for catabolism of amino acid?
why is catabolism of protein NOT a practical source of quick energy?
- protien more difficult to break apart then lipid or carb
- energy yield from protien less then lipid
- one of bi product is toxin
- threatens homeostasis at cell level
an impaired fat absorption in intestine interferes with absorption of what vitamin?
what happens to body cells during absorptive state?
body cells use glucose for ATP production
what happens to the amino group of amino acid during transamination?
transfers to keto acid
destruction of large amt of cells and thier nuclei could lead to an increase in blood levels of what?
which molecules is used for PRIMARY exchange of energy?
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
which molecule links kreb cycle to electron transport chain?
increase diarrhea and lack of eating can cause body to use energy sources other then carbohydrate. This could cause what to increase?
glucogenesis in liver
True or False?
Except for lactose and some glycogen, the carbs we ingest are mainly from animal?
molecule that is major source of readily available body fuel?
where urea is formed?
after 7 days of no eating, what would you observe?
increase in glucocorticoid levels
what happens when purines are deaminated?
excreted as uric acid
why important to eat enough vitamins in diet?
most vitamins are coenzymes and need to help body utilize essential nutrients
anabolism reactions are what?
small molecules are built up into larger molecules or structures
does catabolism in mitochondria provide ATP to sustain cell function?
difference between anabolism and catabolism?
anabolism takes small molecules makign them bigger (builds up) and catabolism (breaks down), so makes complex structures to simple ones
what state does the liver form glycogen?
primary function of cellular respiration?
make ATP which traps some chemical energy of food molecules in its high energy bonds
when does lipogenesis occur?
in cellular ATP and when glucose levels are high
what occurs during postabsorptive state?
- glycogenolysis occurs in liver
- ketone bodies formed
- fat mobilization occurs
- gluconeogeneis occurs in liver
where oxidative deamination takes place?
transamination is the process where amine group of amino acid is transferred to what?
in what state does glycogen form in liver?
what happens during starvation?
- gluconeogenesis accelerates
- structure protiens used as energy source
process where glucose formed from non carbohydrate precursors
conversion of glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid
contents of balanced diet?
- adequate substrates for production of energy
- essential amino acids and fatty acid
- contain enough vitamin and mineral
in normal conditions, are protiens used for energy production?
NO, only in starvation mode when carbohydrates not available
why are protiens essential for body?
- production of hormone
- production of enzymes, clotting factors, antibodies
- form functional molecules
if carbohydrates are in abundance during carbohydrate metabolism what happens to the access present?
they turn to fat
what do vitamins assist in?
function as coenzymes to assist in catalysis
as body moves from absorptive to postabsorptive state which body part continues to burn glucose while all other body organs switch to fatty acid?
during gluconeogenesis, what products are converted to glucose?
glycerol and amino acid
too much ketone bodies in blood and urine indicate what?
increase metabolism of fatty acid
does glycolysis occur in mitochondria?
does electron transport, kreb cycle and formation of malic acid from fumaric acid occur in mitochondria?
occurs in mitochondria, cleavage occurss at every second carbon and yeilds acetic acid
is cellular respiration a catabolic process
during oxidation reactions does a substance gain or lose an electron?
loses the electron
which reaction (oxidation or reduction) causes a gain of electrons?
- reduction gains
- oxidation loses
function of LDL
- 1-regulate cholestrol synthesis in tissue cells
- 2-make cholestrol avail to tissue cells for membrane or hormone synthesis
- 3-one form promotes plaque formation in blood vessels
where does carbohydrate metabolism begin?
cytosol where it doesnt need oxygen
where does aerobic respiration take place and does it use oxygen?
takes place in mitochondria and uses oxygen
steps to carbohydrate metabolism?
- 2) TCA Cycle
- 3)Electron Transport Chain
is glycolysis aerobic or anaerobic process?
anaerobic so doesnt use oxygen
during glycolysis what is converted ?
6 carbon glucose into two 3 carbon Pyruvic acid molecules
how many ATP molecules are gained during glycolysis?
during glycolysis what happens?
- 1) phosphate group attaches to glucose molecule creating glucose 6 phosphate
- 2) another phosphate group attaches
- steps 1 and 2 cost 1 ATP each
- 3) the new molecule then divides into 2 smaller molecules
- 4) both molecules recieve another phosphate group
- Additionally, NAD generates NADH5) as these molecules are processed 2 ATP form6) as the atoms rearrange, water molecules release
- 7) more processing result in net total of 2 ATP that forms
what starts the TCA cycle ?
pyruvic acid that forms anaerobically is absorbed by mitochondria and converts to acetyl group, which binds with coenzyme A and forms Acetyl CoA
What happens during TCA cycle to form citric acid?
acetyl CoA binds to oxaloacetic acid from glycolysis cycle
during TCA cycle what does each Acetyl Coa produce?
- 2 Co2
- 3 NADH + H+
- 1 FADH2
- 1 ATP
During TCA cycle what happens with NADH and FADH2?
they carry H+ to inner mitochondria to make large amt of ATP from electrons in Electron Transport Chain
how many ATP form during the Glycolysis, TCA cycle and Electron Transport Chain?
blood glucose concentration high enough to overwhelm reabsorption of kidneys
types of diabetes?
- Type 1- insulin dependant
- Type 2- non insulin dependant
causes of diabetes?
- genetic abnormalities
- pathological conditions
- immune disorders
- hormone imbalance
symptoms of diabetes?
- increase urination
- increase thirst
- constant hunger
- blurred vision
all organic building blocks cells rely on to provide energy and to create new intracellular componants
- exergonic provide energy
- endogonic require energy
why does cyanide ion that binds to cytochrome a3 become lethal?
prevents transfer of electrons to oxygen and so cells die from energy starvation
if oxygen not present in enough quantity to support electron transport system what happens to pyruvic acid?
it is reduced to lactic acid because NADH and H+ begin to unload the Hydrogens back into pyruvic acid, reducing it. The additional 3 H+ to pyruvic acid result in production of lactic acid
primary purpose of TCA cycle?
reduce coenzyme for electron transport system
what happens during carbohydrate metabolism in GI tract?
polysaccharides broken down to simple sugar and absorption
during carbohydrate metabolism what happens in liver?
- fructose and galactose make glucose
- glycogen stored
Glucose 6 phosphate
- forms immediately inside cells (needs ATP)
- cant cross cell membrane
during cellular respiration what happens to glucose and oxygen initially?
glucose and oxygen broken down to make CO2 and H2O and energy (36-38 ATP form)
from one glucose molecule what is formed?
- 2 ATP form during glycolysis
- 2 ATP during TCA cycle
- 32-34 ATP at electron Transport Cycle
steps to glycolysis?
- 1) glucose enter cytoplasm and phosphate attaches to it
- 2) second phosphate attaches, which uses 2 ATP
- 3) the 6 carbon chain splits to make two- 3 carbon molecule
- 4) phophate attaches to each 3 carbon molecule that split and NAD makes NADH
- 5) 1 ATP is formed for each molecule processed
- 6) the atoms in each molecule rearrange and release 1 molecule of water
- 7) a second ATP is formed for each molecule process. This forms 2 ATP
if O2 lacking in cell what happens to pyruvic acid?
what if there is enough O2?
- not enough O2 will turn pyruvic acid to lactic acid
- when there is enough O2 cellular respiration happens in mitochondria and acetyl CoA forms
- sat fatty acid
- unsaturated fatty acid
if ATP is high how are lipids broken down? what if ATP is low?
- if ATP is high turns to glucose
- if ATP is low to pyruvic acid
what happens to DNA and RNA during catabolism?
- DNA does NOT catabolize
- RNA is disassembled to a nucleic acid where Pyrimidines are converted to Acetyl CoA for TCA cycle and Purines deaminate and excrete to uric acid
how many hours for absorption of each meal in absorptive state?
4 hours and lasts 12 hrs/day
when is absorption of nutrients from GI tract complete?
normal blood glucose levels?
how does glucose enter blood?
- glycogen breakdown in liver to produce
- glycerol from adipose converted by liver
- gluconeogenesis using amino acid will produce it
what are some alternate fuel sources during postabsorptive state?
- fatty acid from adipose tissue fed into kreb as acetyl CoA
- lactic acid produced anaerobically during exercise
- oxidation of ketone body by heart and kidney
what would cause excessive beta oxidation and ketone production?
fasting, starving, high fat meal with few carbs
s/s of ketosis?
- very low blood pH
- sweet smell of ketone body acetone on breathe
what minerals determine osmotic concentration of body fluid?
sodium, chloride, potassium
what mineral cofactors in enzymatic reactions?
manganese, potassium, magnesium, zinc, iron, copper
fat soluble vs water soluble vitamins?
fat soluble absorb with diet fats by small intestine and stored in liver (Vit A, D, E, K)
water soluble are absorbed with water in GI tract, body doesn't store and is excreted in urine if excess in body (Vit B, C)
inside mitochondria, pyruvic acid loses what ?
loses a carbon atom
In the process of cellular respiration, each molecule of glucose that is metabolized yields enough energy to form how many molecules of ATP?
what happens to coenzymes in electron transport chain?
coenzymes receive hydrogen atoms from NADH2 and FADH2.
what happens to glucose during glycolysis?
A molecule of glucose is converted into two molecules of pyruvic acid
breakdown of lipid
during absorptive state what does liver produce?
carbon dioxide is formed during what respiratory cycle?
TCA cycle of respiration
function of citric acid cycle
remove hydrogen atoms from organic molecules and transfer them to coenzymes.
what are minerals?
inorganic ions released through dissocitation of electrolytes.
will mitochondria accept any and all organic molecules for processing and energy production?
no they are picky, only specific organic molecules.
where does cellular respiration or aerobic metabolism occur?
how much ATP is produced when 2 molecules of NAD are converted to NADH?
2 molecules of ATP for each glucose molecule converted to 2 pyruvic acid molecules
glycolysis yeilds how much ATP for each glucose molecule broken down?
in mitochondria, when pyruvic acid participates with NAD and CoA what is produced?
NADH, acetyl-CoA, and carbon dioxide
What 3 products in mitochondria initiate the TCA cycle?
carbon dioxide, NADH, acetyl CoA
where does TCA cycle happen?
carbon dioxide is a waste product of what cycle?
what happens during oxidation and reduction?
- oxidation there is loss of electrons
- reduction a gain of electrons
In TCA cycle, what happens to NAD and FAD?
they remove hydrogen atoms from organic substrates
what is lipid catabolism (lipolysis)?
break down of lipid into small pieces to be converted to pyruvic acid or channeled directly to TCA cycle
5 groups of lipoprotiens
- 1)chylomicrons- produced by intestinal epithelial cell and carry absorbing lipid from intestine to blood
- 2)very low density lipoprotien - transport triglyceride to peripheral tissue
- 3) intermediate density lipoprotien-
- 4) low density lipoprotien- bad cholesterol
- 5) high density lipoprotien- transport excess cholestderol from peripheral tissue back to liver for storage or excretion in bile.
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