Nervous System

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Nervous System
2010-10-20 03:21:12
Common Disorders

definition, analysis, pronunciation
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  1. Alzheimer disease
    • a disease that may begin in late middle life
    • characterized by progressive mental deterioration that includes loss of memory and visual and spatial orientation

    • named after German physician Alois Alzheimer, who first described it in 1906
    • (ALZ-hy-mur)
  2. amnesia
    • loss of memory
    • a- (without)
    • -mnesia (memory)
    • (am-NEE-zah)
  3. aneurysm
    localized dilation of an artery, due to vessel wall weakness

    • Gr. ana (up)
    • eurys (broad)
    • (AN-ur-izm)
  4. anxiety disorder
    a feeling of apprehension or uneasiness that results from anticipation of danger
  5. aphasia
    loss of speech

    • a- (absence of)
    • Gr. phases (speech)
    • (uh-FAY-jhah)
  6. astrocytoma
    star-shaped tumor that usually develops in the cerebrum; frequently in people younger than 20 years old

    • Gr. astron (star)
    • cyt/o (cell)
    • -oma (tumor)
    • (A-stroh-sy-TOH-mah)
  7. ataxia
    lack of muscular coordination

    • a- (without)
    • Gr. taxis (order)
    • (ah-TAK-see-ah)
  8. bipolar disorder
    clinical course characterized by manic episodes alternating with depressive episodes

    • bi- (twice, double)
    • L. polus (the end of an axis)
  9. cerebral thrombosis
    blood clot in the brain

    • cerebr/o (brain); -al (adjective suffix)
    • thromb/o (of or relating to a blood clot); -sis (abnormal condition)
    • (seh-REE-bruhl throm-BO-sihs)
  10. cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
    • a synonym for cerebral stroke
    • an acute clinical event, related to impairment of cerebral circulation, lasting more than 24 hours

    • cerebr/o (brain)
    • vascul/o (blood vessel)
    • -ar (adjective suffix)
    • (seh-REE-bro-VAS-ku-lahr)
  11. cerebrovascular disease
    brain disorder involving a blood vessel

    cerebr/o (brain); vascul/o (blood vessel); -ar (adjective suffix)
  12. concussion
    • cerebral concussion: violent shaking of the brain
    • temporary loss of consciousness followed by short period of amnesia
    • dizziness, nausea, headache
    • result from a fall or blow to the head
  13. delirium
    impaired consciousness

    • L. deliro (to be crazy)
    • (duh-LEER-ee-uhm)
  14. delusion
    false belief or wrong judgement despite evidence to the contrary

    • L. ludere (to play)
    • (deh-LOO-shun)
  15. dementia
    impaired intellectual function

    • L. de (apart, away)
    • mens (mind)
    • (duh-MEN-shah)
  16. demyelination
    patchy loss of the myelin sheath

    • de- (loss of)
    • myelin (refers to myelin sheath)
    • -tion (state of)
  17. depression
    prolonged period where there is a loss of interest or pleasure in almost all activities

    L. depressio
  18. dysphasia
    impaired speech

    • dys- (bad, difficult)
    • Gr. phases (speaking)
    • (DISS-fay-jhah)
  19. encephalitis
    inflammation of the brain

    • encepal/o (of or pertaining to the brain)
    • -itis (inflammation)
    • (en-seff-uh-LY-tiss)
  20. epidural hematoma
    a collection of blood in the space between the skull and dura mater

    • epi- (above) ; dural (relating to the dura mater) ; hemat/o (blood) ; -oma (tumor)
    • (EH-pih-dur-ahl hee-mah-TOH-ma)
  21. epilepsy
    CNS disorder often characterized by seizures

    • Gr. epilepsia (seizure)
    • (EPP-ih-lepp-see)
  22. glioblastoma
    a cerebral tumor occurring most frequently in adults

    • glio (glue)
    • Gr. blastos (germ)
    • -oma (tumor)
    • (GLY-oh-blass-TOH-mah)
  23. glioma
    tumor of glial tissue

    • glio- (glue)
    • -oma (tumor)
    • (gly-OH-muh)
  24. grand mal seizure
    type of severe seizure with tonic-clonic convulsion

    • Fr. meaning big illness
    • (grahn-mahl SEEZ-yuhr)
  25. hallucination
    subjective perception of an object or voice when no such stimulus exists

    • L. alucinor (to wander in mind)
    • (hah-LOO-sih-nay-shun)
  26. hemiparesis
    partial paralysis of one side of the body

    • hemi- (one-half)
    • -paresis (slight paralysis)
    • (heh-mee-puh-REE-suhs)
  27. hemiplegia
    paralysis of one side of the body

    • hemi- (half)
    • -plegia (paralysis)
    • (hehm-ee-PLEE-jee-ah)
  28. Huntington disease
    hereditary disorder of the CNS

    • named after American physician George Huntington who described the disorder in 1872
    • (HUN-ting-tuhn)
  29. hydrocephalus
    excessive cerebrospinal fluid in the brain

    • hydro- (water)
    • cephal/o (of or pertaining to the head)
    • (hy-dro-SEFF-uh-lehs)
  30. hyperesthesia
    abnormal sensitivity to touch

    • hyper- (extreme or beyond normal)
    • esthesi/o (sensation)
    • (hy-per-ess-THEE-zyuh)
  31. kleptomania
    uncontrollable impulse to steal

    • Gr. klepto- (to steal)
    • L. -mania (insanity)
    • (klep-toh-MAY-knee-yah)
  32. meningioma
    • benign tumor of the meninges
    • mening/o (membrane)
    • -oma (tumor)
    • (meh-nihn-jee-OH-muh)
  33. meningitis
    inflamed meninges

    • mening/o (membrane)
    • -itis (inflammation)
    • (meh-nihn-JY-tiss)
  34. multiple sclerosis
    disease of the CNS characterized by the formation of plaques in the brain and spinal cord

    • multiple (many)
    • scler/o (hardness)
    • -osis (abnormal condition)
    • (skleh-RO-sihs)
  35. myasthenia gravis
    muscle weakness, lack of strength

    • my/o (muscle)
    • astheneia (weakness)
    • (MY-ahs-THEE-nee-ah GRA-viss)
  36. myelitis
    inflammation of the spinal cord

    • myel/o (bone marrow or spine)
    • -itis (inflammation)
    • (my-eh-LY-tiss)
  37. myelomeningocele
    protrusion of the membranes of the brain or spinal cord through a defect in the cranium or vertebral column

    • myel/o (bone marrow or spine)
    • meningi/o (membrane)
    • -cele (hernia)
    • MY-loh-mih-NIHN-gee-oh-seel)
  38. neuralgia
    pain in a nerve

    • neur/o (nerve)
    • -algia (pain)
    • (nuh-RALL-jah)
  39. neuropathy
    a disease involving the cranial, central, or autonomic nervous systems

    • neur/o (nerve)
    • -pathy (disease)
    • (nuh-ROP-ah-thee)
  40. obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
    type of anxiety disorder characterized by persistent thoughts and impulses with repetitive responses that interfere with daily activities
  41. paralysis
    loss of one or more muscle functions

    • para- (abnormal, alongside)
    • -lysis (destruction)
    • (pah-RALL-ih-sihs)
  42. paranoia
    a serious mental disorder characterized by unreasonable suspicion or jealousy, along with a tendency to interpret everything others do as hostile

    • para- (abnormal, alongside)
    • Gr. noeo (to think)
    • (pahr-ah-NOY-ya)
  43. paraplegia
    paralysis of the lower extremities, and often, the lower trunk of the body

    • para- (abnormal, alongside)
    • -plegia (paralysis)
    • (pahr-ah-PLEE-jee-ah)
  44. paresthesia

    • para- (abnormal)
    • esthesi/o (sensation)
    • (per-ess-THEE-zyuh)
  45. Parkinson disease
    disease of the nerves n the brain due to an imbalance of dopamine

    • named for English physician James Parkinson, who described it in 1817
    • (PAR-kin-suhn)
    • Parkinson's, parkinsonism
  46. petit mal seizure
    milder form of seizure lasting only a few seconds and does not include convulsive movements; also known as absence seizures

    • French words meaning small illness
    • (petty-mahl-SEEZ-yuhr)
  47. phobia
    a fear of something that is not a hazard from a statistical point of view

    • phob/o (exaggerated fear)
    • -ia (noun suffix)
    • (FOH-bee-ah)
  48. plegia

    • -plegia (paralysis)
    • (PLEE-jee-uh)
  49. poliomyelitis
    inflamed gray matter of the spinal cord

    • polio- (denoting gray color)
    • myel/o (bone marrow or spine)
    • -itis (inflammation)
    • (pohl-ee-oh-MY-eh-LY-tiss)
  50. psychosis
    • a serious disorder involving a marked distortion of, or sharp break from, reality
    • general term covering severe mental or emotional disorders

    • psych/o (of or pertaining to the mind); -sis (condition of)
    • (sy-KOH-sihs)
  51. quadriplegia
    paralysis of all four limbs

    • quadr/i (four)
    • -plegia (paralysis)
    • (kwad-rih-PLEE-jee-ah)
  52. schizophrenia
    a severe mental illness characterized by auditory hallucinations, paranoia, and an inability to distinguish reality from fiction

    • schiz/o (denoting split or double sided)
    • Gr. phren (mind)
    • (skits-oh-FREN-ee-ah)
  53. seizure
    sudden disturbance in brain function sometimes producing a convulsion

  54. somnambulism
    sleep walking

    • L. somnus (sleep)
    • L. ambulo (walk)
    • -ism (a medial condition)
    • (sahm-NAM-bu-lih-sm)
  55. subdural hematoma
    a collection of blood trapped in the space beneath the dura matter, between the dura and arachnoid layers of the meninges

    • sub- (beneath); dura (hard); -al (adjective suffix)
    • hemat/o (blood); -oma (tumor, collection)
    • (SUB-dur-ahl hee-mah-TOH-ma)
  56. syncope

    • Gr. syncope (a cutting short, a swoon)
    • (SIN-kuh-pee)
  57. transient ischemic attack
    temporary interruption in the blood supply to the brain

    • Gr. ischo (to keep back)
    • Gr. hamia (blood)
    • (TRANS-ee-ent IH-skee-mik)
  58. vertigo
    • dizziness
    • L. verto (turn)
    • (VER-tih-goh)