Microbio Midterm

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Microbio Midterm
2010-10-20 22:30:36

Midterm 1
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  1. Braun's Lipoprotein
    • Anchors outer membrane to the inner layer of peptidoglycan
    • free floating
  2. Lipopolysaccharide
    • anchored in the outer membrane of Gram-
    • lipid & sugar
    • when bound together, it's not toxic
  3. Porin
    • Associated with Gram-
    • aquaporin
    • entrance of water & water like structures
  4. Mycolic acid
    • acid fast bacterium
    • lipodal "waxy"
    • M. Leprae, M. tuberculosis
  5. Techoic acid
    help keeps things together in peptidoglycan
  6. Lipotechoic acid
    goes through the cell wall & anchors cell structure & links it to the plasma/cell membrane of a Gram+
  7. Antigens
    Proteins in the body that are recognized by the immune system and can produce an immune response
  8. Capsule
    • Starts as a "slime layer" / a single layer of polysaccharide
    • many, many slime layers = capsule
    • microorganism that have the ability to produce a capsule are more virulent than those that don't

    • Functions
    • - Food source - keep food on hold
    • - Protective function - like having another cell wall
    • - Insular - helps the microorganism keep heat in
    • - Facilitates adherence - can stick
    • - Help to evade immune responses
  9. Virulence
    degree of which something can cause harm

    • Highly virulent
    • -influenza
    • Avirulent
  10. Flagellum
    • confer motility to a microbe
    • do well in aqueous environments
    • energy expensive
    • - filament - outer whip part
    • - hook - rotating protein
    • - basal apparatus - attached to the cell membrane
    • if a microbe is in starvation, it will drop it's flagella
  11. Flagellin
    the major protein that made up flagella
  12. Name the flagellar arrangement
  13. Peritrichous
  14. Name the flagellar arrangement
  15. Name the flagellar arrangement
  16. Name the flagellar arrangement
  17. Chemotaxis
    to move towards chemicals
  18. Phototaxis
    to move towards light
  19. Flagellar Movement
    moving towards food
  20. Flagellar Movement
    take away food, and place it on the other side
  21. Flagellar Movement
    Place food in all directions
  22. Pili/Pilus
    • structure that is used in gene transfer from one bacterium to another
    • between two bacteria, one microbe has to have the gene to make a pilus
    • made out of pilin (hollow tube)
    • aka a "sex pilus"
  23. Fimbre
    allow bacterium to attach to a surface
  24. Biofilm formation
    an assembly of microorganisms that will first attach to a surface/fimbrae, and then start to attach to each other

    • - starts off with a bacterium turning on the genes to make a fimbre that attaches to a surface
    • - other bacteria will attach, and also attach to that bacteria as well
  25. Glycocalyx
    • produce a biofilm
    • can restrict the flow and increase the pressure of the flow
  26. ribosomes
    • make proteins
    • difference between a eukaryotic ribosome and a prokaryotic ribosome is size
    • -ribosomes in bacteria are smaller
  27. Cytoplasm
    • watery solute matrix that gives integrity to the cell
    • site of glycolosis
  28. Nucleoid
    • brain of the cell for a bacterium
    • functions like a nucleus, but doesn't have a nuclear membrane
    • has the chromosomes that make the genes, that gives the codes to the proteins to make enzymes
  29. Plasmid
    • extrachromosomal DNA
    • can vary in size
    • can have several copies
    • typically not vital to a bacteria's survival
  30. Magnetosomes
    • magnetic bodies
    • made up of metal called magnetite
    • allows bacterium to move without needing flagella
    • move towards metals
  31. Cell membrane
    • selectively permeable bilayer
    • hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends
  32. Transmembrane proteins
    • channels that allow things to come in and out
    • antibiotics go in and affect the integrity of the membrane
  33. Vacuoles
    • structures found within cytoplasm
    • stores inorganic and organic compounds

    • inorganic
    • - iron compounds
    • - calcium
    • organic
    • - polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) / biodegradable items contain this
    • gas
    • - marine or aquatic microbes
    • - allows them to get places
    • - CO2, H2, N2
  34. Spores
    • not involved in reproduction
    • much involved in survival
    • will be manufactured when a bacterium is under stress, or in the threat of death
    • made up of organic acids and calcium (protein coat)
  35. What types of chemical treatments are spores resistant to?
    • UV radiation
    • bleaching
    • cytocon
    • antibiotics
  36. Pertaining to spores, what does a bacterium do when it's under attack?
    • take it's nucleoid and packs it up
    • compound called dipicohnic acid and calcium, and produces a shell
    • inside shell - few key enzymes, nucleic acid, all its genes, and dipicohnic acid
    • rest of the cell degrades, and you're left with a spore
  37. Endospore
    within a bacterium, inside
  38. Free spore
  39. Name the image
    • terminal or subterminal spore
    • clostridium
  40. Name the image
    • Central spore
    • Bacillus
  41. Binary Fission
    • bacterial growth
    • splits in half continuously
    • when bacteria grow, they will reach a critical mass to give us a colony
  42. What colony of bacterium look dry and flat?
    Typical bacillus
  43. What colony of bacterium look convex, smooth, glistening?
    E. coli
  44. What colony of bacterium look mucky?