Ch.38 - Safety (2)

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  1. What age group is the most at risk for falling?
    Older adults (65 & up)
  2. What factors increase the risk for falling?
    • age
    • a history of previous falls
    • gait disturbance
    • balance and mobility problems
    • postural hypotension
    • sensory impairment
    • urinary and bladder dysfunction
    • certain medical diagnostic categories (ex: cancer, neurological)
    • drug use

    One of the more common factors precipitating a fall is a client's attempt to get out of bed to toilet.
  3. Most common & serious fall injury?
  4. Restraint
    device used to restrict patient with/without their permission

    The optimal goal for all clients is a restraint-free environment; however, clients who are at risk for injury from wandering, falls, and disruptive or agitated behavior may need restraints temporarily
  5. Install treads with uniform depth of 9 inches (22.5 cm) and 9-inch risers (vertical face of steps).
    How would this prevent falls?
    • When stairs are of uniform size, older adults do not have to continually adjust vision.
    • see table 38-1 on pg.830
  6. Install uniform-textured or plain-colored surfaces on each tread, and mark edge of tread with contrasting color.
    How would this prevent falls?
    • Uniform textures or color help to decrease vertigo. Marking edge of tread provides obvious visual clue to end of stair.
    • see table 38-1 on pg.830
  7. Nine Life-Saving Patient Safety Solutions
    Box 38-2, pg. 816
    • Be aware of look-alike, sound-alike medication names
    • Use patient identification
    • Communication during patient handover
    • Perform correct procedure at correct body site
    • Control concentrated electrolyte solutions
    • Ensure medication accuracy during transition (admission & discharge)
    • Avoid catheter and tubing misconnections
    • Do not reuse single-use injection devices
    • Hand hygiene
  8. R.A.C.E.
    R - Rescue and remove all clients in immediate danger.

    A - Activate the alarm. Always do this before attempting to extinguish even a minor fire.

    C - Confine the fire by closing doors and windows and turning off oxygen and electrical equipment.

    E - Extinguish fire.
  9. Infant, toddler, preschooler
    • Prone to accidents (many are preventable)
    • —Accident prevention requires parent education
    • Choking, falling, burns
  10. —School-age child
    • —Require education about safe play; should use protective safety equipment for sports **HELMETS**
    • lots of concussions
  11. Adolescents
    • Drugs & alcohol
    • Sex - proper protection
    • Car accidents (*seat belts*)
    • Drowning
    • Suicides attempts
  12. Adult
    • Lifestyle (drugs, alcohol, sex)
    • Drunk driving
    • Stress
  13. Older Adults
    • Senses are poor
    • Changes in depth perception
    • Polypharmacy – multiple drugs for multiple reasons
  14. What measures can be put in place to reduce falls by older adults?
    • hand rails in bathroom
    • adequate lighting
    • make sure things are within reach (reorganizing)

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Ch.38 - Safety (2)
2010-10-20 06:40:58

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