Ch. 44 Nutrition (2)

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Ch. 44 Nutrition (2)
2010-10-20 04:10:39

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  1. Clear Liquid Diet
    • Broth (bouillon)
    • coffee
    • tea
    • carbonated beverages
    • clear fruit juices
    • gelatin
    • Popsicles
  2. Full Liquid Diet
    • clear liquid diet
    • addition of smooth-textured dairy products (ex: ice cream)
    • custards
    • refined cooked cereals
    • vegetable juice
    • pureed vegetables
    • all fruit juices
  3. Pureed
    • clear liquid diet
    • full liquid diet
    • scrambled eggs
    • pureed meat, veggies, and fruits
    • mashed potatoes and gravy
  4. Mechanical Soft Diet
    • person with no teeth can eat this diet
    • clear liquid diet
    • full liquid diet
    • pureed diet
    • ground or finely diced meats, flaked fish, cottage cheese, cheese, rice, potatoes, pancakes, light breads, cooked vegetables, cooked or canned fruits, bananas, soups, peanut butter
  5. Soft/Low Residue Diet
    • patients with GI problems use this diet to eliminate gas-producing food
    • clear liquid, full liquid, pureed, and soft mechanical diet
    • Addition of low-fiber, easily digested foods, such as pastas, casseroles, moist tender meats, and canned cooked fruits and vegetables. Desserts, cakes, and cookies without nuts or coconut.
  6. High Fiber Diet
    Addition of fresh uncooked fruits, steamed vegetables, bran, oatmeal, and dried fruits.
  7. Low-Sodium Diet
    4-g (no added salt), 2-g, 1-g, or 500-mg sodium diets. These diets vary from no added salt to severe sodium restriction (500-mg sodium diet) that requires selective food purchases.
  8. Low-Cholesterol Diet
    300 mg/day
  9. Diabetic Diet
    • usually around 1800 calories
    • include a balanced intake of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
  10. Polymetric Nutrition
    • –GI tract must be able to absorb whole nutrients
    • blenderized food: broken down to almost a liquid and contains all the nutrients a patient needs for the day
  11. Modular Nutrition
    • Not nutritionally complete
    • protein supplements: not the whole diet
  12. Elemental Nutrition
    • –predigested nutrients
    • used in patients who can't absorb (dysfunctional GI tract)
  13. Speciality Nutrition
    Specific to nutritional needs (liver failure, pulmonary failure)
  14. Enteral tubes
    • Nasogastric
    • Nasointestinal
    • Gastrostomy
    • Jejuostomy
  15. Nasogastric
    • thru nose
    • <4 weeks
  16. Nasointestinal
    • thru nose
    • <4 weeks
  17. Gastrostomy
    • surgically
    • >4 weeks (long term)
    • patients with gastroparesis, aspiration, or reflux may use this method
    • reduced discomfort of nose tubes and more secure, reliable access
  18. Jejuostomy
    • surgically or endoscopically
    • >4-5 weeks (long term)
    • patients with gastroparesis, aspiration, or reflux may use this method
    • reduced discomfort of nose tubes and more secure, reliable access
  19. How do you know if tube is in the right place?
    • xray
    • pH test: > 6 means improper placement
  20. Parenteral Nutrition (PN)
    • nutrients via IV
    • Clients who are unable to digest or absorb enteral nutrition benefit from PN.
    • Clients in highly stressed physiological states such as sepsis, head injury, or burns are candidates for PN therapy
  21. Lipid Emulsions
    • provide supplemental kilocalories and prevent essential fatty acid deficiencies
    • usually white & opaque
    • patient receives them over 24 hrs