Endocrine System

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Endocrine System
2010-10-20 04:53:38
Common Disorders

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  1. acromegaly
    enlargement of the extremities (mostly hands and feet) caused by excessive secretion of the growth hormone after puberty

    • Gr. akron (extremity)
    • -megaly (enlargement)
    • (AK-roh-mehg-alee)
  2. Addison (Addison's) disease
    a disorder characterized by a failure of the adrenal glands to produce hydrocortisone and, in some cases, aldosterone

    after the British physician, Thomas Addison, who first described the condition in 1855
  3. adenitis
    inflammation of a gland

    • aden/o (adrenal gland)
    • -itis (inflammation)
    • (ad-eh-NY-tihs)
  4. adenohypophysitis
    inflammation of the hypophysis

    • aden/o (gland)
    • hypophys/o (pituitary gland)
    • -itis (inflammation)
    • (AD-eh-noh-hy-poff-ih-SY-tihs)
  5. adrenalitis
    inflammation of an adrenal gland

    • adrenal/o (adrenal glands)
    • -itis (inflammation)
    • (ah-dree-nah-LY-tiss)
  6. adrenalopathy; adrenopathy
    any disease of the adrenal glands

    • adrenal/o (adrenal glands)
    • -pathy (disease)
    • (ah-dree-nah-Lop-ah-thee)
    • (ah-dree-NOP-ah-thee)
  7. Cushing (Cushing's) syndrome
    a hormonal disorder caused by too much hydrocortisone

    named after Harvey Cushing, American physician, who described the disorder in 1932
  8. diabetes insipidus
    condition brought about by the posterior pituitary's failure to produce enough ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

    • diabetes (Gr. meaning a compass, a siphon)
    • insipidus (lacking flavor or zest)
    • (DY-ah-BEET-ehs ihn-SIP-ih-duhs)
  9. diabetes mellitus (Type 1, Type 2)
    condition brought about by insufficient production of insulin in the pancreas (type 1) or the failure of the body's cells to absorb glucose (type 2)

    • diabetes (Gr. meaning a compass, a siphon)
    • mellitus (L. "sweetened with honey" or "honey-sweet")
    • (DY-ah-BEET-ehs meh-LY-tuhs)
  10. gigantism
    abnormal overgrowth of the body due to excessive secretion of the growth hormone before puberty

    • giant
    • -ism (condition)
    • (JEYE-gan-tizm)
  11. glycosuria
    sugar in the urine

    • glyc/o/s (sugar)
    • -uria (urine)
    • (GLY-koh-SYUR-ee-ah)
  12. goiter
    chronic enlargement of the thyroid gland

    • L. gutter (throat)
    • (GOY-tuhr)
  13. Graves (Graves') disease
    a common form of hyperthyroidism resulting from overproduction of thryoxine; caused by a false immune system response

    named after Robert James Graves (1796-1853), an Irish physician who first described exophthalmic goiter in 1835
  14. Hashimoto (Hashimoto's) thyroiditis
    an autoimmune disorder that attacks the thyroid gland causing hypothryroidism

    • Hashimoto (Japanese surgeon, 1881-1934)
    • thyr/o (thyroid gland)
    • -itis (inflammation)
    • (Hah-shee-moh-toh)
  15. hyperglycemia
    excessive sugar in the blood

    • hyper- (above normal)
    • glyc/o (sguar)
    • -ia (condition)
    • (hy-puhr-gly-SEEM-ee-ah)
  16. hyperpituitarism
    excessive hormone secretion by he pituitary gland

    • hyper-(above normal)
    • L. pituita
    • (HY-puhr-pih-TOO-iht-ahr-izm)
  17. hyperthyroidism
    condition caused by an overactive thyroid; usually caused by an immune system disorder known as Graves' disease

    • hyper- (above normal)
    • thyr/o (thyroid gland)
    • -ism (condition)
    • (HY-puhr-THY-royd-izm)
  18. hypophysitis
    inflammation of the pituitary gland

    • hypophys/o (pituitary gland)
    • -itis (inflammation)
    • (hy-poh-fih-SY-tihs)
  19. hypopituitarism
    condition of diminished hormone secretion from the anterior pituitary gland

    • hypo- (below normal)
    • L. pituita
    • -ism (condition)
    • (hy-poh-pih-TOO-ih-tahr-izm)
  20. hypothyroidism
    a decrease in thyroid function

    • hypo- (below normal)
    • thyroid refers to the thyroid gland
    • -ism (state of)
  21. pituitarism
    any pituitary dysfunction

    • L. pituita
    • -ism (condition)
    • (pih-TOO-iht-ahr-izm)
  22. thyroaplasia
    congenital condition characterized by low thyroid output

    • thyr/o (thyroid gland)
    • aplasia (Gr. plassien "not to form")
    • (THY-roh-a-PLAY-zee-ah)
  23. thyroiditis
    inflammation of the thyroid gland

    • thyr/o (thyroid land)
    • -itis (inflammation)
    • (thy-roy-DY-tihs)
  24. thyromegaly
    enlargement of the thyroid gland

    • thyr/o (thyroid gland)
    • -megaly (enlargement)
    • (thy-roh-MEG-ah-lee)