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Top three causes of dealth in adult males.
- coronary heart disease
- intentional self harm
- lung cancer
Top three causes of dealth in adult females.
- breast cancer
- lung cancer
- coronary heart disease
damage to foetus caused by, passing down genes, poor uterus environment, chromosome abnormality
What does blood pressure measure?
Measures the force of the blood on the walls of the arteries.
How is blood pressure recorded?
- Systolic: max pressure exerted on the arteries when the heart muscle contracts to pump blood.
- Piastolic: Min pressure in the arteries when the heart muscle relaxes between heart contractions.
What factors lead to poor blood pressure?
- being unfit
- drinking alcohol
What 2 serious conditions can result from high blood pressure?
- Coronary heart disease
- Most common form of dealth in Australia.
- Serious stroke can result in paralysis on one side of the body.
- Gender is a risk factor.
Symptoms of stroke.
- difficulty speaking
- loss of balance
How much physical exercise is recommended victorian adults do per week?
- 30 min of moderate intensity of physical activity on most (preferably all) days.
- Reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure.
Different types of families.
- Couple: two people living together
- Nuclar: two adults with children
- One parent: one adult with children
- Step: two adults with at least one child from one parent, no natural
- Blended: two adults with step children and natural children
Differnt types of work.
- Full time: no less than 38 hrs/week
- Part time: no more than 20 hrs/week. Same entitlements as full time.
- Casual: can work as many hours a week as employer stimulates. no rights
What things can lead to work place stress?
- Over worked
- Workplace bullying
- Sexual harassment
- Deadline pressure
- Job security
- Changes in workplace
What symptoms can workplace stress cause?
- Fatigue: decrease physical and social
- Depression: decrease emotional and mental
- Heart problems: decrease physical
- Headaches: decrease physical
5 costs associated with buying a house.
When is it determined that the cost of housing is high?
Cost is high when at least 1/3 of family income is required to meet rent or mortage repayments.
Health problems associated with stress with buying a house.
- Insomia: decrease physical, social and intellectual
- Memory lapes: decrease intelectual and social
- Chronic pain: decrease physical, social and mental
- Age: birth-2
- Average growth: birth weight doubles by six months, triples by 12.
- Physical development: sences continue to deveop, although vision is still largely burry.
- Intellectual deveoplment: learns by putting objects in their mouth.
- Emotional deveopment: emotional atachment towards care givers
- Social deveopment: totally dependent on parents.
- Age: 2-6
- Average growth: height increases 6 cm per year, weight by 2.5 kg per year.
- Physical deveopment: increased coordination.
- Intellectual development: deveoping intrest in the world around them.
- Emotional deveoplment: deveop a sence of empathy
- Social deveopment: deveop social skills such as sharing and taking turns.
- Age: 6-12
- Average growth: height increases around 5 to 6 cm per year, 3 kg per year
- Physical development: permenate teeth develop
- Intellectual development: can complete instructions with multiple steps.
- Emotional development: start to develop self concept
- Social devlopment: acquire a greater sense of right and wrong.
Is it a concern if a child doesnt develop by a certain time.
- no it is not, everybody develops at different stages beacuse everybody is different.
- individual variations
- if physical dveopment is slower, they could have troble with social development.
principles of development
- Development occurs in a predictable and orderly way
- Development is continual
- There are individual variations in the rate and timing of development
- Development folloes predictable patterns - cephalocudal, proximodistal
- Development proceeds from simple to complex
Development occurs in a predictable and orderly way
learn to walk at 9 to 15 months
Development is continual
learning to write in early childhood
There are individual variations in the reate and timing of development
hormones, genetics, family interactions, nutrition, physical activity.
Development follows predictable patterns
- Cephalocudal: growth and dev from the head down
- Proximodital: growth and dev from core of the body outwards
Devopment proceeds from simple to complex
learn to craw before walking
3 recommendations for pregnant women to protect the safety of a foetus and reasons why?
- No alcohol consumption or else baby may be born woth foetal alcohol syndrome.
- No raw seafood, is causes poisioning
- Cutting down on caffenine, caffenine increases the risk of miscarriage
What are teratogens?
- Environment substances thats can cause abnormal prenatal developmet
- examples: medications, certain foods, drigs and alcohol
Stages of prenatal development
- Sperm and ova: meeting of sperm and egg
- Germinal: starts at fertalization and ends with implantaion
- Embryonic: stars with implantaion and ends at the eighth week
- Foetal: starts at the 9th week ends at birth.
What does APGAR stand for?
- Activity: muscle tone
- Pluse: heart rate
- Grimance: responsivness or reflex irritability
- Apperance: skin colouration
- Respiration: rate and effort or breathing
- Administed one and five mintutues after birth
top 3 mortality in infants
- pernatal conditions
- congenital abnormalities
top 3 mortality in children
- Heart failure
- all cancer
- Diseases of the nevrvous system
top 3 morbidity in children
- hayfever & allergic rhintis
- underfined allergy
Biological factors in children
- birth weight
- body weight
Behaviour factors in children
- sun protection
- eating habits
- level of physical activity
- oral hygiene
- maternal nutrition
- parental smoking
- marernal alchohol & drug use
- breast feeding
Physical environment in children
- smoking iin the home
- housing environment
- water flurodiation
- access to recreational facilities
Social environment (family) in children
- parental education
- parental employment status & occupation
- Parental income
- family dtress & trauma
- Parental health & disability
- work-life balance
- parenting practices
Social environment (community) in children
- access to social support
- neighbour hood safety
- access to services
Biological determinants in adults
- Body weight
- Blood pressure
- Blood cholesterol
- Physical activity
- Food intake
- Alcohol use
- Drug use
- Sexual preactices
Physical envrronment in adults
- houseing & workplace safety
- access to health care
Social environment in adults
- level of education
- employment status
- living arrangements
- social support
- family & worklife balance
Foetal alcohol syndrome
- When alcohol is consumed by a pregnant women, it crosses the placenta from the mother's blood to the baby's blood.
- Facial features: small head, thin upper lip, flat cheecks, short nose, low nasal bridge
- Others: ADHD, dev delays, learning difficulties, reduced memory loss capacity, increases rish mental health, drug & alcohol miss use.
- Authoritarian: overemphasis on dicipline & little or no opportunity for decision making by the child. intimidating, with expectaion of obedience and respect.
- Authoritative: fair discipline, cater for the self-esteem needs of the child, fair but not unrealistic expectaions, good behaviour is rewarded.
- Permissive: fail to discipline, little or no expectaions of the child, give demand, set no rules or limitaions.
closely surrounding birth, poor maternal health, nutrition, in adequate care during pregancy
- A 3rd 21 chromosomes
- Slight upward stance of the eye, rounded face with a flat profile, smaller stature.
- it effects the respiratory, digestive and reproductive systems.
- the mucus glads secrete very thick sticky mucus, this clogs tiny air passages
- persist cough
- poor appetie
- frequent vistis to the toilet
- neurological condition caused by the inheritance of a defective gene.
- dealth of brain cells in a certain area
- mild twitching
- walking difficulties
- mood swings
- damage to the spinal cord
- walking difficulties
- increased stress on kidneys
- build up or cerebrospinal fluid on the brain
- urinary and faecal incotinence
- Age: 19 to around 40
- Social development: starting a carrer
- Emotional development: ability to deal with changes is increased
- Intellectual development: learning skills and knowledge for choosen carree.
- Age: 41 to 64
- Social dvelopment: developing a sucessful relationship
- Emotional development: self confidence and accepatance of who they are.
- Intellectual devlopment: ability to process infromation and solve problems will have improved.
- Age: 65 till dealth
- Social dvelopment: retirement changes
- Emotional development: feelings of boredom, loneliness and loss
- Intellectual development: decline in information processing abilities
Phycial development in early adulthood
- nervous systems at peak
- sensory organs at shapest
- peak bone mass achieved
- muscle strength reaches peak
- max height reached
Physical development in middle adulthood
- bone density decreases
- weight gain
- heart valves thicken and stiffen
- walls or arteries garden
- hearing declines
- eyesight starts to decline
- women experience menopause
- hair starts to thin and turn grey
- wrinkles begin to appear
Physical development late adulthood
- bone density continues to decline
- spine starts to compact
- muscle tone decreases
- proportion of fat increases
- facial hair on women
- skin thins
- teeth start to fall out
- A temporary chest pain or discomfort, particularly during activity, cold temperatures or extremes of emotion.
- arises from decreased oxygen supply due to the narrowing of the coronary arteries.
- commonly known as a heart attack
- when blood supply to a specific area of heart is stopped
commonly know as high blood pressure
stroke, coronary heart disease, hypertension and myocardial infarction
reasons males have lower life expectancy than females
- Females more likly to seek help
- males have more dangerous jobs
- males are more likly to commit suicide
the process of the narrowing of arteries as a result of build up of fatty deposits on the arterial walls.
3 specific benefits of physical activity
- improves cardiovascular fitness
- reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes
- helps control weight
3 categories of exercise
- low: walking
- moderate: jogging
- high: sprinting
- It is a federal govenment initiative, funded through, taxes and administered by the health insurance commission
- purpose is to make health care accessible to all austrailians
- it is compulsory
What does medicare provide?
- free treatment as a public patient in a public hospital (no choice or doctor)
- x-rays amd pathology test (subsidised)
- Eye tests (sub)
- free (if bulk billed) or subsidised (85% of scheduled fee) treatment by doctors.
- A safety net for people with high medical expenses- once a vertain amount is exceeded, medicare pays 100% of the fee.
Privitate health insurance
- people can choose to pay
- it is expensive but there isnt as long waiting time.
- privite hospital services
- choice of doctor in public system
- services such as dental and physio
- spectacles and contact lenses
Alternative/ complementary medicines
- they are those outside of traditional medicine
- acupuncture, osteopathy, aroatherapy, naturopathy, meditation, chiropractic, homeopathy, chinese medicine, hypmotherapy ect