Pharyngeal Arch Derivatives
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Derivatives of the Cartilage of the 1st Pharyngeal Arch - Maxillary Process
- Portions of Temporal bone and Vomer
Derivatives of the (Meckel) Cartilage of the 1st Pharyngeal Arch - Mandibular Process
- Malleus and Incus in middle ear
- Anterior ligament of malleus
Derivatives of the (Reichert) Cartilage of the 2nd Pharyngeal Arch
- Stapes in middle ear
- Styloid process
- Stylohyoid ligament
- Cranial portion of hyoid bone (Lesser Cornu)
Derivatives of the Cartilage of the 3rd Pharyngeal Arch
Caudal portion of Hyoid (Greater Cornu and Body)
Derivatives of the Cartilage of the 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches.
- Thyroid Cartilage
- Cricoid Cartilage
Muscles derived from the 1st pharyngeal arch and their innervation.
- Muscles of Mastication
- Ant. Belly of digastric m.
- Masseter m.
- Mylohyoid m.
- Temporalis m.
- Tensor tympani m.
- Medial and Lateral Pterygoid mm.
- Innervated by CNV (Maxillary (V2) and Mandibular (V3) branches of Trigeminal n.)
Muscles derived from the 2nd pharyngeal arch and their innervation.
- Muscles of Facial Expression and Lateral ChinFrontalis m.
- Obicularis Oris/Oculi mm.
- Platysma m. ect.
- Stylohyoid m.
- Posterior Belly of Digastric m.
- Stapedius m.
- Innervated by CNVII (Facial n.)
Muscles derived from the 3rd pharyngeal arch and their innervation.
- Stylopharyngeus m.
- Innervated by CNIX (Glossopharyngeal n.)
Muscles derived from the 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches and their innervation.
- Pharyngeal mm.
- Innervated by CNX (Vagus n.)
General sensory innervation of the tongue.
Mandibular branch (V2) of CNV (Trigeminal n.)
Special sensory (taste) innervation of the tongue.
CNVII (Facial n.)
Derivatives of the 1st Pharyngeal Pouch
- Tubotympanic Recess
- Tympanic (middle ear) cavity
- Mastoid antrum
- Auditory Tube (open this when popping ears)
Derivatives of the 2nd Pharyngeal Pouch
- Palatine Tonsils
- Colonization of this area by lymphoid cells
Derivatives of the 3rd Pharyngeal Pouch
- Thymus Migrates to sternum – training site for T-Lymphocytes
- Inferior Parathyroid Glands
- Initially tied to thymus so drug inferiorly
Derivatives of the 4th Pharyngeal Pouch
- Ultimopharangeal Body
- Descends slightly toward the neck
- Incorporate into developing Thyroid
- Deferentiate into Parafollicular cells (C-cells) of thyroid – produce calcatonin
- Superior parathyroid glands
Derivatives of the 1st Pharyngeal Groove/Cleft
External Acoustic Meatus
Derivatives of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Pharyngeal Groove/Cleft
- Cervical vesicle (eventually degenerates)
- Surface smoothes out neckline
Where does primordial Thyroid develop?
Midline endodermal outpocketing between 1st and 2nd Pharyngeal Pouches
Elongating tube of primordial Thyroid.
Opening of Thyroglossal duct in pharynx.
Derivation of anterior tongue.
- Derived from 1st pharyngeal arch
- Lateral lingual swellings
- Median lingual swelling (tubercular impar)
- These fuse to form the midline groove (median sulcus)
Derivation of posterior tongue.
- Copula in 2nd arch is overgrown by 3rd and 4th arch growth
- Hypopharyngeal eminence (3rd and 4th arches)
- Converge and fuse – terminal sulcus
Nerve supply to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue.
Trigeminal n. (CNV) – Mandibular Branch (V2)
Nerve supply to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue.
- Glossopharyngeal n. (CNIX)
- The posterior tongue is mostly derived from the 3rd pharyngeal arch.
Nerve supply to muscles of the tongue.
Hypoglossal n. (CNXII)
Five lumps of the face.
- Frontonasal Prominence
- Left and Right Maxillary Prominences (of 1st Pharyngeal arch)
- Left and Right Mandibular Prominences (of 1st Pharyngeal arch)
Thickening in the ectoderm on either side of the Frontonasal prominence
Depression in the nasal placode
- Nasal Pit
- Medial and Lateral Prominences develop around the nasal pit
- Come together slightly forming nasal sac
Ridges in nasal cavity formed by proliferation of mesenchyme under endoderm
Three components of the intermaxillary segment and what they form.
- Labial component – upper lip
- Upper jaw component – teeth buds of 4 incisors
- Palatal component – primary palate
Formation of Secondary Palate
- Lateral palatal processes from maxillary prominence of 1st arch
- Fuse in midline separating the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
- Cleft palate if these do not fuse properly
- Nasal septum grows down and fuses with the secondary palate
Point of fusion between the palatine shelves and the primary palate.
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