ch 12&24

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ch 12&24
2010-10-21 14:01:57

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  1. what do anticoagulant drugs do?
    • DO NOT dissolve blood clots
    • prevents 2nd MI
    • prevents DVT
  2. Coumadin is given
  3. Lovenox is given.....
  4. Heprin is given....
  5. is vitamin K a coagulant drug?
  6. Heparin was the 1st and can only be given...
    subq or IV
  7. can Heparin be given orally?
  8. what is heparin is made from what 2 animals?
    cow or pig
  9. Heparin and Fragmin are measured in....
  10. what is warfarin (coumadin)?
    an oral anticoagulant
  11. ________prevents platelets from clumping together and forming a clot.
    Platelet aggregation inhibitors
  12. ______stops thrombin from forming a clot. Used for angina.
    Thrombin inhibitor drugs
  13. what do thrombbolytics do?
    dissolves clots
  14. what 2 things bind to fibrin and convert into a non solid state?
    thrombolytic drugs and tissue plasminogen
  15. what is known as tPA and only given in ICU, ER, or SURGERY?
    • tissue plasminogen activator drugs
    • *activase
  16. topical hemostatic drugs........
    • contain gelatin, collagen fibers, cellulose, fibrin, or thrombin in a liquid or powder base and are applied topically
    • *Gelfilm/Surgicel
  17. anemia does what?
    decreases number of red blood cells produced red bone marrow
  18. anemia can be caused by....
    • decreased amounts of iron and vit b12
    • disease
    • cancer
    • radiation
    • chemo drugs
  19. types of anemia
    • pernicious anemia
    • sickle cell anemia
    • megaloblastic anemia
    • anemia of pregnancy
    • iron deficiency anemia
    • hemolytic anemia
  20. what is hemophilia.....
    inherited genetic abnormality causes deficiency of specific clotting factor
  21. what is the most common hemophilia?
    • hemophilia a
    • *factor VIII
  22. von Willebrand disease
    inherited disorder by abnormally slow coagulation of epistaxis and gingival bleeding by deficency of factor VIII
  23. Vit K (Aqua-mephyton)
    used to start or restore normal blood clotting time.
  24. what does Protamine sulfate do
    reverses heparin and is it's antidotes.
  25. what is another word for heart stop?
  26. lifethreating conditions.....
    • MI
    • V-fib
    • respiratory failure
    • drug overdose
    • chocking
  27. p02 is known as what?
    oxygen levels in the blood
  28. pC02 is what?
    carbon dioxide in blood
  29. ______has meds, defib, etc for emergency situations.
    Crash carts
  30. what does CPR mean?
    cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  31. ACLS means what?
    advanced cardiac life support
  32. what are the 3 ways drugs r given in emergency code situations?
    • IV- push or bolus (double standard dose)
    • Endotracheal-directly in lung
    • Intracardiac-not often used
  33. For cardiac arrhythmias......
    • lidocaine is drug of choice for life threating v-fib
    • *death could occur in 4 mins
  34. Atropine is used for.......
    bradycardia-blocks release of acetycholine
  35. for asystole.......
  36. Epi works in 3 ways.........
    • 1. constricts blood vessels raising BP
    • 2. increases heart rate raising BP
    • 3. relaxes bronchial smooth muscles resulting in bronchodilation better air flow to lungs
  37. calcium chloride....
    stimulates heart contractions
  38. Vasopressors-
    • produce vasoconstriction and increase BP
    • increase heart rate
    • increase kidney perfusion
  39. some VASOPRESSORS are......
    Dopamine, Adrenalin, Isuprel, Norepinephrine
  40. when do you use sodium bicarbonate?
    when all else fails
  41. Emetic drug is used to.
    induce vomiting during an overdose
  42. Syrup of ipecac...
    can only be given to conscious patients and given in timely manner
  43. absorbent drugs...
    bind to toxin so it can't b absorbed
  44. activated charcoal.....
    absorbent and commonly given via NG tube to unconscious patient.
  45. what does antagonist mean?
    exerting an action opposite to original drug-preventing org. drug from becoming toxic.
  46. some antagonist agents.......
    • narcotic-Narcan
    • tranquilizer-Romazicon
    • Antidepressant-antilirium
  47. Digibind and Mucomyst are also drugs for?
  48. Adrenaline or Epipen is used for what?
    anaphylactic shock or anaphylaxis
  49. 6 reasons to give IV fluids......
    • 1. correct decreased body fluid imbalance
    • 2. correct decreased levels of electrolytes
    • 3. provide nutrition
    • 4.administer drugs
    • 5. administer blood/plasma
    • 6. maintain venous access in emergency or bt dosages
  50. IV therapy
    Continuous infustion/IV drip
    fluid given continuously and is calculated by pts weight, fluid volume needs, and heart/kidney functions.
  51. IV therapy
    IV piggyback
    drug is mixed with other or given back to back
  52. IV therapy
    IV push
    single dose given through rubber stopper
  53. KVO (keep vein open)
    very slow rate
  54. Hep lock
    cathlon is connected to rubber stopper for periodic administration
  55. common used IV fluids contain what?
    electrolytes or dextrose
  56. names of dextrose and water.....
    • D5W
    • D10W
    • D20W
    • D30W
    • D50W-most common
  57. when a pt does not need extra sugar what are they given?
    sodium solution
  58. normal saline is like.......
    normal body fluids
  59. Lactated Ringers (LR)
    • dextrose and electrolytes
    • *can b mixed with water
  60. TPN or total parenteral nutrition or hyperalimentation is........
    specially prepared solution provides nutritional needs when a pt can't eat
  61. TPN contains........
    proteins, electrolytes, vitamins, and minerals
  62. Hickman is.....
    the special cath that TPN is given
  63. IV lipids
    fat for nutritional purpose that add calories
  64. Multi vit
    total 12 vits (9 water soluble/3 fat soluble)
  65. Blood can b transfused by.....
    • whole blood
    • packed RBCs
    • Platelets
    • plasma.....
  66. whole blood...
    complete correction of blood loss, may overload their system
  67. whole blood info....
    • must b typed matched
    • good for 42 days
    • add citrate to prolong refrige shelf life
  68. packed red blood cells (PRBC)
    • most plasma removed
    • lacking proteins/clotting factors
    • provide RBCs which carry O2
    • *can cause fluid overload
  69. platlets can b......
    • given alone
    • help form clot
    • should b cross matched
    • don't cause transfusion reaction
    • shelf life 5 days
  70. plasma and volume expanders-
    • liquid portion of whole blood w/o any cellular components
    • NOT need to b cross matched
    • GIVEN to hemophiliacs
  71. fresh frozen plasma (FFP)
    • volume expander that contains proteins and clotting factors
    • room air to b thawed
    • onced thawed, MUST b thrown away
  72. plasma protein fraction
    • 5% plasma proteins
    • no clotting factors
  73. albumin
    • plasma protein with no clotting factors
    • life span 120 days
    • *albuminar
  74. cryoprecipitate
    • clotting factor VIII and fibrinogen
    • treats hemophiliacs
  75. plasmapheresis
    separation of blood cells from plasma then returning just blood
  76. plasma volume expanders
    • given IV
    • restores blood volume to norm levels
    • don't need regfrige
    • good for many months
    • *dextran and hespan