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what do anticoagulant drugs do?
- DO NOT dissolve blood clots
- prevents 2nd MI
- prevents DVT
is vitamin K a coagulant drug?
Heparin was the 1st and can only be given...
subq or IV
can Heparin be given orally?
what is heparin is made from what 2 animals?
cow or pig
Heparin and Fragmin are measured in....
what is warfarin (coumadin)?
an oral anticoagulant
________prevents platelets from clumping together and forming a clot.
Platelet aggregation inhibitors
______stops thrombin from forming a clot. Used for angina.
Thrombin inhibitor drugs
what do thrombbolytics do?
what 2 things bind to fibrin and convert into a non solid state?
thrombolytic drugs and tissue plasminogen
what is known as tPA and only given in ICU, ER, or SURGERY?
- tissue plasminogen activator drugs
topical hemostatic drugs........
- contain gelatin, collagen fibers, cellulose, fibrin, or thrombin in a liquid or powder base and are applied topically
anemia does what?
decreases number of red blood cells produced red bone marrow
anemia can be caused by....
- decreased amounts of iron and vit b12
- chemo drugs
types of anemia
- pernicious anemia
- sickle cell anemia
- megaloblastic anemia
- anemia of pregnancy
- iron deficiency anemia
- hemolytic anemia
what is hemophilia.....
inherited genetic abnormality causes deficiency of specific clotting factor
what is the most common hemophilia?
von Willebrand disease
inherited disorder by abnormally slow coagulation of epistaxis and gingival bleeding by deficency of factor VIII
Vit K (Aqua-mephyton)
used to start or restore normal blood clotting time.
what does Protamine sulfate do
reverses heparin and is it's antidotes.
what is another word for heart stop?
- respiratory failure
- drug overdose
p02 is known as what?
oxygen levels in the blood
pC02 is what?
carbon dioxide in blood
______has meds, defib, etc for emergency situations.
what does CPR mean?
ACLS means what?
advanced cardiac life support
what are the 3 ways drugs r given in emergency code situations?
- IV- push or bolus (double standard dose)
- *MOST COMMON
- Endotracheal-directly in lung
- Intracardiac-not often used
For cardiac arrhythmias......
- lidocaine is drug of choice for life threating v-fib
- *death could occur in 4 mins
Atropine is used for.......
bradycardia-blocks release of acetycholine
Epi works in 3 ways.........
- 1. constricts blood vessels raising BP
- 2. increases heart rate raising BP
- 3. relaxes bronchial smooth muscles resulting in bronchodilation better air flow to lungs
stimulates heart contractions
- produce vasoconstriction and increase BP
- increase heart rate
- increase kidney perfusion
some VASOPRESSORS are......
Dopamine, Adrenalin, Isuprel, Norepinephrine
when do you use sodium bicarbonate?
when all else fails
Emetic drug is used to.
induce vomiting during an overdose
Syrup of ipecac...
can only be given to conscious patients and given in timely manner
bind to toxin so it can't b absorbed
absorbent and commonly given via NG tube to unconscious patient.
what does antagonist mean?
exerting an action opposite to original drug-preventing org. drug from becoming toxic.
some antagonist agents.......
Digibind and Mucomyst are also drugs for?
Adrenaline or Epipen is used for what?
anaphylactic shock or anaphylaxis
6 reasons to give IV fluids......
- 1. correct decreased body fluid imbalance
- 2. correct decreased levels of electrolytes
- 3. provide nutrition
- 4.administer drugs
- 5. administer blood/plasma
- 6. maintain venous access in emergency or bt dosages
Continuous infustion/IV drip
fluid given continuously and is calculated by pts weight, fluid volume needs, and heart/kidney functions.
drug is mixed with other or given back to back
single dose given through rubber stopper
KVO (keep vein open)
very slow rate
cathlon is connected to rubber stopper for periodic administration
common used IV fluids contain what?
electrolytes or dextrose
names of dextrose and water.....
- D50W-most common
when a pt does not need extra sugar what are they given?
normal saline is like.......
normal body fluids
Lactated Ringers (LR)
- dextrose and electrolytes
- *can b mixed with water
TPN or total parenteral nutrition or hyperalimentation is........
specially prepared solution provides nutritional needs when a pt can't eat
proteins, electrolytes, vitamins, and minerals
the special cath that TPN is given
fat for nutritional purpose that add calories
total 12 vits (9 water soluble/3 fat soluble)
Blood can b transfused by.....
- whole blood
- packed RBCs
complete correction of blood loss, may overload their system
whole blood info....
- must b typed matched
- good for 42 days
- add citrate to prolong refrige shelf life
packed red blood cells (PRBC)
- most plasma removed
- lacking proteins/clotting factors
- provide RBCs which carry O2
- *can cause fluid overload
platlets can b......
- given alone
- help form clot
- should b cross matched
- don't cause transfusion reaction
- shelf life 5 days
plasma and volume expanders-
- liquid portion of whole blood w/o any cellular components
- NOT need to b cross matched
- GIVEN to hemophiliacs
fresh frozen plasma (FFP)
- volume expander that contains proteins and clotting factors
- room air to b thawed
- onced thawed, MUST b thrown away
plasma protein fraction
- 5% plasma proteins
- no clotting factors
- plasma protein with no clotting factors
- life span 120 days
- clotting factor VIII and fibrinogen
- treats hemophiliacs
separation of blood cells from plasma then returning just blood
plasma volume expanders
- given IV
- restores blood volume to norm levels
- don't need regfrige
- good for many months
- *dextran and hespan