Physical Science Module 4

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Physical Science Module 4
2010-10-20 15:38:56
Physical Science Module Air

Based on the Apologia book exploring creation with physical science
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  1. Atmosphere
    The mass of air surrounding a planet
  2. Atmospheric Pressure
    The pressure exerted by the atmosphere on all object within it
  3. Barometer
    An instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure
  4. Homosphere
    The lower layer of the earth's atmosphere, which extends from ground level to roughly 80 km (50 mi) above sea level
  5. Heterosphere
    The upper layer of the earth's atmosphere, which extends higher than roughly 80 km (50 mi) above sea level
  6. Troposphere
    The region of the atmosphere that extends from ground level (11 km/7 mi) above sea level
  7. Stratosphere
    The region of the atmosphere that spans altitudes of roughly 11 km to 48 km (30 mi)
  8. Mesosphere
    The region of the atmosphere that spans altitudes of roughly 48 km to 80 km (50 mi)
  9. Jet streams
    Narrow bands of high-speed winds that circle the earth, blowing west to east
  10. Heat
    Energy that is transferred as a consequence of temperature differences
  11. Temperature
    A measurement of the energy of random motion in a substance's molecules
  12. Thermosphere
    The region of the atmosphere between the altitudes of roughly 80 km and 460 km
  13. Exosphere
    The region of the atmosphere above an altitude of roughly 460 km
  14. Ionosphere
    The region of the atmosphere between the altitudes of roughly 65 km and 330 km, where the gases are ionized
  15. Suppose the earth's atmosphere contained twice the number of molecules it does today. Would atmospheric pressure be greater than, equal to, or less than it is now?
    Greater than
  16. Two students make two different barometers. Although they are placed side by side so that they are both exposed to exactly the same atmospheric pressure, the column of liquid in the first student's barometer is significantly lower than the column of water in the second student's barometer. Assuming both students made their barometers correctly, what explains the difference?
    One student used water as their liquid while the other used mercury
  17. The average, sea-level value for atmospheric pressure is 14.7 pounds per inch, which is the same as 29.9 inches of mercury. If the atmospheric pressure is 0.85 atms, which of the following values would correspond to atmospheric pressure as reported in a weather report?
    25.4 inches of mercury
  18. Two vials contain air samples taken at different altitudes. The first is composed of 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, and 1% other. The second is 95% helium, 4% hydrogen, and 1% other. Which came from the homosphere?
    The first vial
  19. You are reading the data coming from a data-gathering balloon as it rises in the atmosphere. You have no idea what altitude it is at, but the balloon is sending a signal from its thermometer, telling you the temperature of its surroundings. How will you know when the balloon enters the stratosphere? How will you know when it enters the mesosphere?
    • Signs that the balloon is in the stratosphere would be the increase in temperature
    • For the mesosphere, it would be a decrease in temperature.
  20. Name the three regions of the homosphere, from lowest to highest.
    • Troposphere
    • Stratosphere
    • Mesosphere
  21. Although the temperature gradient changes from region to region in the homosphere, there is one gradient that stays the same. It continues to decrease as you increase in altitude, no matter where you are in the homosphere. To what gradient am I referring?
    Amount gradient
  22. A plane is experiencing a LOT of problems because of a storm in the area. Is the plane flying in the troposphere or the stratosphere?
  23. A scientist has two vials of ammonia gas. She tells you that in the first vial, the gas molecules are traveling with an average speed of 1,000 miles per hour. In the second vial, they are traveling with an average speed of 1,300 miles per hour. Which vial contains the gas with the higher temperature?
    The second vial
  24. As you are outside on a cold winter night, you begin to shiver from the cold. Your companion says that you are shivering from the heat. Is your companion correct? Why or why not?
    True; the heat inside you is the molecules hitting against you at the same time the cold outside has molecules hitting your skin, causing you to vibrate.
  25. Suppose there were a layer of carbon dioxide gas in the mesosphere. What would happen to the temperature gradient in that region?
    It would be warm
  26. Why will the ban on CFCs most likely not save or improve people's lives?
    A ban on CFCs will probably not save or improve lives because CFC's cause a depletion of ozone only during a few months out of the year and mostly over Antarctica
  27. Why will the ban on CFCs most likely result in a tragic loss of human life?
    Our surgical sterilizers won't be as strong. Fires will take longer to be put out.
  28. Even though human civilization is responsible for less than 1% of all chlorine in the atmosphere, it is responsible for 80% of all ozone-destroying chlorine. Why?
    Some kinds of human-made molecules that contain chlorine can survive the trip up to the ozone layer, while most naturally produced chlorine-containing molecules cannot
  29. What makes it possible for CFCs to travel up to the ozone layer and begin destroying ozone?
    CFCs are able to blow up into the ozone layer by the polar vortex since they are relatively inert.
  30. Where is the ionosphere, and what makes it useful to us?
    Between the upper portion of the mesosphere, and lower portion of the thermosphere. Radio-transmitters use it to expand signal of their radio stations