Where are Ptychocysts found in the phylum? what does this organism use them for?
Ptychocysts are found Anthozoan in the order of Ceriantharia.
They are used for burrowing by the Ceriantharia
Know morphology of Nematocysts from lab manual Fig. 3.2 - just saying
What three uses are Cnematocysts for Cnidaria
1. Prey Capture
What part of the body would we expect to find nematocysts
Nematocysts are located epidermally
Scyphozoansand anthozoanshave cnidocytesin some ____________ locations.
Whats a cnidocil Where does it occur?
Cnidocil is a sensory organ rellying on both physical stimuli as well as a chemical stimuli. it is ontop of the nematocyst out reaching.
Whats an operculum
operculum - the opeing to the nidil
Whats a nematocyst
Nematocyst is the capsule that holds the nidil
What happens when a nidocyt is "used" how long does it take to regenerate a new one?
a new one tkaes 48 hours to regenerate. the old one is gone and done.
Discharge mechanism depends on ______ pressure changes
Discharged nematocysts have a ___________ volume.
Greater or lesser?
Discharged nematocysts have a ______ osmotic pressure
Once triggered, the membrane becomes more permeable to _____ and inward _____ flux causes a rapid ___-____ unfolding of the nematocyst.
Discharge influenced by factors including (2 factors) of the animal
2. Physiological condition of the animal
Typically requires two different stimuli to effect discharge. What are they?
1. Mechanical stimulation of the cnidocil
2. chemosensory stimulation
Each cnidocytecan operate __________ of other cnidocytesand of the _ _.
NS or Nervous System
What is ment by independent effectors of nidocytes
indepdent as in one nidocyte is nto dependent totally on antoher nidocyte to dishrage its stinger
However _ _ can change the _______ of discharge
Batteries of cnidocytesare usually connected by nerves and, if one fires, the rest of that group requires _____ stimuli to discharge than the cells that fire first.
About ___ cnidarianspecies from the free-living classes are toxic to humans, causing from mild to fatal reactions.
However, three genera/species seem to pose highly significant health threats:
1. Chironex fleckeri
2. Carukia barnesi
3. Physalia physalis
Nematocysts contain a complex mixture of toxins including (1) catecholamines, (2) histamine, (3) hyaluronidase, (4) fibrinolysins, (5) kinins, (6) phospholipases, and (7) various hemolytic, cardiotoxic, and dermatonecrotictoxins. - just saying
Portuguese ________________ (1) the larger Physaliaphysalis,which is found in the Atlantic Ocean
(2) the smaller Physaliautriculus,which is found in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
–Three deaths reported in N. America in recent years.
Fire corals, ___________ species (from last Lecture
Sea nettles Chrysaorasp. and Cyaneasp., Cyaneacapillata, thelion's mane jelly is more famous because of Sherlock Holmes’ “The Adventure of the Lion’s Mane” than for actually killing people. - just saying
This class contains the most dangerous cnidarianto humans, the seawasp, Chironex _______.
Chironex ________ is the only jellyfish for which we have an antivenom.
The venom of C. barnesicontains a sodium channel modulator that is linked to increased catecholamine release, which explains the early hyperadrenergicstate demonstrated by victims. - jujst saying
Anthozoansvs. humans - jsut saying
The sea anemone Phyllodiscussemoni(night or wasp-sea anemone) located in the Western Pacific Ocean is reported to cause fulminantdermatitis and acute renal failure in humans. - jsutt saying
Cnidarians are primarily _________ but ___________and mutualistic nutritional modes also occur throughout the phylum.
Most adopt a prey capturing posture with __________ extended.
Digestion is a combination of ________cellular and _____cellular processes.
Gland cells release mostly ________ into the _______ that fragment the prey into a soupy mixture.
_________ cells taken up the material by phagocytosis and __________ and complete digestion ___cellularly.
Autoradiographicstudies show absorption occurs across the _________ membrane and that compounds are transported through the _____ at low rates.
Feeding by Polyorchismedusa•Fishnet posture - just saying
What two protists do nidarians have a wide spread symbiotic relationship with?
Protistslive in ________ in gastrodermal cells
Protistssupply the host with ____, and ______________ compounds; protists have a protected, favourable environment with ___ and __________.
Cnidarians that carry endosymbiontsmay have a problem, an ___________
excess of oxygen
The animals produce large quantities of ____________ to defeat the evil oxygens
antioxidants. superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase[CAT] and glutathione peroxidase[GPX]