School Psychology Assessment
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First Intelligence Test
- What? Binet-Simon Scale
- When? 1905
- Where? France
- Who? Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon
- Why? The test was developed b/c the French government wanted to fid a way to identify school-aged children with MR..who would benefit most from school instruction
upper limits of scores; analogous to floor highest possible score on a test; indicates how well the instrument discriminates among children in the upper ranges of functions and which populations can and cannot validly be tested with the instrument
lower limits of scores; lowest possible score obtainable on a test; refer to the number of easy items available at the lowest level of a test (ex the 5 year old that may not be able to score anything below an 86)
derived scores that permit us to determine an individual's position relative to the standardization sample or any other specified sample; a point in a distribution at or below which the scores of a given percentage of individuals fall
Raw scores that have been transformed so that they have predetermined mean and standard deviation; expressed as an individual's distance from the mean in terms of s.d. of the distribution (i.e. z-scores)
What's a derived score?
the child's standing relative to the norm group and allows us to compare the child's performance on one measure with his or her performance on other measures (i.e. standardized test scores) all are obtained from raw scores, the different derived scores are merely different expressions of a child's performance
What's a raw score
the actual number of points earned on a given test
Which two scales of mesurement use continuous variables which are characterized by an infinite number of possible values (i.e temp, age); parametric stats (i.e. t-test, Pearson's R)
Interval and Ratio
Which two scales of measurement use discrete variables which are characterized by separate, indivisible categories, with no intermediate values; nonparametric (ie chi square)
Nominal and Ordinal
Disadvantages of classification and labeling
medical connotations suggests disease, provide little explanation of difficulties and adequate info about steps to intervene, lead to self-fullfilling prophecies, obscure important differences between individuals, focus on symptoms, stereotypes, focus on label and not treatment, suggests unchanging symptom profile.
Benefits of classification and labeling
may increase altruism and understanding in others, developing testable hypothesis, lead to suggestions for remediation, helps in evaluating outcomes, obtaining services, developing programs, obtaining funding, allow additional information about disorder for parents and teachers, provides alleyway for mutual support to other parents of children with like disabilities, provides possible explanation for behavior, may provide closure and relief for parents, afford legal protection
Continuum of Cognitive Assessment Intelligence Test vs Achievement Test
- Intelligence= measures what a person can do intellectually without benefit of specific training or education
- Achievement= measures the effects of a systematic program of instruction or training
French Physician: Ran across a boy growing up alone in a Forest: "Wild Boy" named Victor: He taught Victor and became interested in normal vs abnormal development
Jean Marc Itard
When? Where? and What? was the first evidence of assessment methodology?
- What=examination of public officials
What are some sources for assessment information
1) referral source 2) Child 3) Parents 4) Teacher 5) Other family members 6) Other informants 7) Child's records and previous evaluation
What are the steps in the assessment process?
- 1. Review referral information
- 2. Decide to accept/ reject referral
- 3. Obtain relevant background information
- 4. Consider influence of relevant others
- 5. Observe the child in several settings
- 6. Select and administer assessment battery
- 7. Interpret results
- 8. Develop intervention strategies and recommendations
- 9. Write report
- 10. Meet with team to discuss results
- 11. Follow up on recommendations and re-evaluate as necessary.
What are the four pillars of assessment?
- 1. Norm-referenced measures-standardized on norm group, economical and efficient means of sampling behavior within a few hours and quantifying a child's funtioning (fives a picture of the child's deficits and strengths and compares child's functioning to a peer group)
- 2. Interviews-parent, child, teacher,etc.: can be structured (used to arrive at Dx) or unstructured (open-ended) and semi-structured(provide a list of questions but can change focus as needed)
- 3. Behavioral Observations-classroom, playground, transition times, home, during testing, etc.
- 4. Informal Assessment Procedures-work samples, record reviews, criterion related assessment, social history (want these from original sources, beware of biases) *all four should be included not just one or two
What are the developmental domains?
- Cognitive Skills (intelligence/aptitude and achievement)
- Language Skills (receptive and expressive-often most difficulty)
- Adaptive Behavior Skills (daily skills, cumulative, expectations rise with age)
- Social-emotional Skills
- Physical/motor Skills
- *these all influence each other we focus more on cognitive, adaptive, and social-emotional
What are the purposes of assessment?
- 1. Screening (brief: Identify those at risk and determine eligibility for programs)
- 2. Focused(specific areas of functioning, diagnostic question (ie does the child have ADHD), skill question (ie does the child have a verbal memory deficit?) etiological question (why is the child failing math))
- 3. Process-progress over time (ongoing)
- 4. Diagnostic (detailed evaluation of a child's strengths and weaknesses in several areas; such as cognitive, academic, language, behavioral, emotional, and social functioning)
- 5. Problem solving(part of the process to identify and intervene for the specific problem (ie dyslexia))
- 6. Counseling and Rehabilitation (focuses on a child's abilities to adjust to and successfully fulfill daily responsibilities.
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