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What is an antimicrobial? (4)
- natural or synthetic agent which acts to inhibit and/or kill microorganisms such as:
- 1. viruses
- 2. fungi
- 3. protozoa
- 4. bacteria
What is a type of antimicrobial?
What is an antibiotic?
a drug from any source, including synthetic, used to kill BACTERIA
What is a culture?
Isolating and growing microorganisms in a petri dish in lab, then examining under a microscope to reveal the exact microbe.
What is sensitivity?
A lab test which identifies which antimicrobials is effective against the microbe.
What is C&S?
Culture and Sensitivity (lab test)
What is Gram staining?
process in lab that uses dyes on bacteria.
What are two types of bacteria?
- 1. gram positive
- 2. gram negative
Whether a bacteria is gram positive or negative depends on their? (2)
Knowing a bacterias shape and gram status tells the doctor?
Which antibiotic to prescribe
What is a broad spectrum antibiotic?
one which kills a wide variety of bacteria
What is a narrow spectrum antibiotic?
onne which kills a small variety of bacteria
What are the common antimicrobials? (5)
- 1. Penicillins (PCN)
- 2. cephalosporins
- 3. tetracyclines
- 4. aminoglycosides
- 5. sulfonamides
What is PCN?
bacteriocidal (kills bacteria), stop bacteria from synthesizing their cell walls
Allergy to one -illin may mean?
allergies to its relatives
What is a relative to PCN?
Monitor all clients recieving PCN for signs of? (5)
- 1. hypersensitivity
- 2. urticaria
- 3. laryngeal edema
- 4. skin rash
- 5. anaphylactic shock
What should be done at the first sign of hypersensitivity for someone taking PCN?
discontinue therapy stat
How long must you observe someone taking PCN before they can leave your health care facility?
What toxicitiy might cephalosporins cause?
Most relatives to cephalosporin start with?
1. When a cleint is taking cephalosporins you must monitor the client for what? 2. If they have this condition, do you continue therapy?
- 1. hypersensitivity S&S
- 2. no
Clients with what impairment should you use caution when they are taking cephalosporins?
What are tetracyclines? (4)
- 1. bacteriostatic (stop bacteria from reproducing)
- 2. not related to PCN
- 3. not used much today because it stains childrens teeth
- 4. causes photosensitivity
What is photosensitivity?
risk of skin burns from sunlight or UV light
Most relative of tetracycline end with?
1. Tetracyclines should be avoided in children what age and 2. why? (2)
- 1. age 8 and younger
- 2. Because it can permanently stain the teeth
- 3. interfere with bone and teeth development
What is good advice to give clients taking tetracyclines because of the phototoxicity(photosensitvity)?
stay out of light exposure
1. What 4 things should be avoided when taking tetracyclines? 2. why?
- 1. calcium supplements
- 2. antacids
- 3. iron
- 4. dairy products
- 5. because the mess with the drugs absorption
What toxicity may aminoglycosides cause? (2)
- 1. nephrotoxic
- 2. ototoxic
What is the only route aminoglycosides should be used?
You should always monitor a client taking aminoglycosides for?
What may occur if a person taking aminoglycosides takes anesthetics or muscle relaxants?
- 1. neuromuscular blockade
- 2.respiratory paralysis
When a patient is taking aminglycosides, you must provide good hydration in order to reduce risk of? (2)
- 1. nephrotoxicity
- 2. neurotoxicity
When a patient is taking aminoglycosides, avoid drugs that produce? (3)
- 1. ototoxicity
- 2. nephrotoxicity
- 3. neurotoxicity
How are sulfonamides usually taken?
What are sulfonamides usually prescribed for?
What may sulfonamides decrease?
What do the relatives of sulfonamides usually start with?
What is important to know about sulfonamides before giving medication?
must be on empty stomach
A client taking sulfonamides must maintain an adequate fluid intake to prevent? (2)
- 1. crystalluria (crystals forming in urine)
- 2. stone formation
What is good advice to give someone who is taking sulfonamides when it comes to tanning?
do not go in sun to prevent phototoxic reaction.
1. Common antifugals are usually needed in combination with what and 2. why?
- 1. antibiotics
- 2. due to overgrowth of fungi when normal flora are killed
What are the 2 common antifungals?
What is nystatin used to treat?
candida albicans (thrush)
What is the usual form for nystatin?
Who usually ends up needing nystatin?
people on chemo with altered immune systems
What is miconazole used to treat? (3)
- 1. candida
- 2. athletes foot
- 3. vaginal yeast infections
What is the common antiviral?
Why can many viral infections not be treated?
Because by the time the virus is detected most of the replication is over with and that is what the antivirals deal with.
Acyclovar patients doses depend on? (2)
- Type of:
- 1. herpes
- 2. varicella
- being treated
When there is a IV infusion of acyclovir, what levels should be monitored? (2)
- 1. BUN
- 2. creatinine
- because it can be nephrotoxic
A patient on acyclovir IV site shhould be monitored for?
What kind of complications could happen because an immuno-compromised patient uses acyclovir?
What is acyclovir used to treat?
What is HSV?
herpes simplex virus
What caused the mass production of antivirals?
What are interferons?
seem to sheild healthy cells from getting a virus.
What are interferons used to treat? (4)
- 1. hepatitis C
- 2. MS
- 3. melanoma
- 4. other chronic conditions
What are the common antiparasitics?
- 1. metronidazole
- 2. Quinine
- 3. head lice treatments
What is another name for metronidazole?
What is flagyl used to treat? (2)
- 1. trichomonas (STD)
- 2. anaerobic bacterial infections
What S&S may flagyl cause?
What is quinine used to treat?
What is malaria?
parasitic infection in the blood
What is important to follow when treating headlice and why?
The directions EXACTLY, because is can be toxic to the person
What are the general considerations when taking antimicrobial drugs?
- 1. monitor for diarrhea/vomiting
- 2. watch for overgrowth of other flora
- 3. Watch for prolonged diarrhea wich may indicate "superinfection" (overgrowth of unwanted bacteria in the intestine)
- 4. Take ALL doses
- 5. Notify dr. if side effects are severe
- 6. call 911 if allergic reaction appears, consider wearing Med bracelet
What are the usual bacteria to cause "superinfection"?
Clostirdium difficule "C diff"
What is extravasation?
Chemotx drugs get into tissue rather than blood.
What is stomatitis?
inflammation of the mouth
What medication is administered for Gout?
You must monitor site during chemotherapy administration every how many minutes?
every 15 minutes