PHARM Week 3 ch 7, 8, & 40

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PHARM Week 3 ch 7, 8, & 40
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2010-10-24 22:51:56
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  1. What is an antimicrobial? (4)
    • natural or synthetic agent which acts to inhibit and/or kill microorganisms such as:
    • 1. viruses
    • 2. fungi
    • 3. protozoa
    • 4. bacteria
  2. What is a type of antimicrobial?
    antibiotic
  3. What is an antibiotic?
    a drug from any source, including synthetic, used to kill BACTERIA
  4. What is a culture?
    Isolating and growing microorganisms in a petri dish in lab, then examining under a microscope to reveal the exact microbe.
  5. What is sensitivity?
    A lab test which identifies which antimicrobials is effective against the microbe.
  6. What is C&S?
    Culture and Sensitivity (lab test)
  7. What is Gram staining?
    process in lab that uses dyes on bacteria.
  8. What are two types of bacteria?
    • 1. gram positive
    • 2. gram negative
  9. Whether a bacteria is gram positive or negative depends on their? (2)
    • 1. genus
    • 2. species
  10. Knowing a bacterias shape and gram status tells the doctor?
    Which antibiotic to prescribe
  11. What is a broad spectrum antibiotic?
    one which kills a wide variety of bacteria
  12. What is a narrow spectrum antibiotic?
    onne which kills a small variety of bacteria
  13. What are the common antimicrobials? (5)
    • 1. Penicillins (PCN)
    • 2. cephalosporins
    • 3. tetracyclines
    • 4. aminoglycosides
    • 5. sulfonamides
  14. What is PCN?
    bacteriocidal (kills bacteria), stop bacteria from synthesizing their cell walls
  15. Allergy to one -illin may mean?
    allergies to its relatives
  16. What is a relative to PCN?
    cephalosporins
  17. Monitor all clients recieving PCN for signs of? (5)
    • 1. hypersensitivity
    • I.E.
    • 2. urticaria
    • 3. laryngeal edema
    • 4. skin rash
    • 5. anaphylactic shock
  18. What should be done at the first sign of hypersensitivity for someone taking PCN?
    discontinue therapy stat
  19. How long must you observe someone taking PCN before they can leave your health care facility?
    30 min
  20. What toxicitiy might cephalosporins cause?
    nephrotoxic
  21. Most relatives to cephalosporin start with?
    Cef-
  22. 1. When a cleint is taking cephalosporins you must monitor the client for what? 2. If they have this condition, do you continue therapy?
    • 1. hypersensitivity S&S
    • 2. no
  23. Clients with what impairment should you use caution when they are taking cephalosporins?
    renal impairment
  24. What are tetracyclines? (4)
    • 1. bacteriostatic (stop bacteria from reproducing)
    • 2. not related to PCN
    • 3. not used much today because it stains childrens teeth
    • 4. causes photosensitivity
  25. What is photosensitivity?
    risk of skin burns from sunlight or UV light
  26. Most relative of tetracycline end with?
    -cycline
  27. 1. Tetracyclines should be avoided in children what age and 2. why? (2)
    • 1. age 8 and younger
    • 2. Because it can permanently stain the teeth
    • 3. interfere with bone and teeth development
  28. What is good advice to give clients taking tetracyclines because of the phototoxicity(photosensitvity)?
    stay out of light exposure
  29. 1. What 4 things should be avoided when taking tetracyclines? 2. why?
    • 1. calcium supplements
    • 2. antacids
    • 3. iron
    • 4. dairy products
    • 5. because the mess with the drugs absorption
  30. What toxicity may aminoglycosides cause? (2)
    • 1. nephrotoxic
    • 2. ototoxic
  31. What is the only route aminoglycosides should be used?
    parenterally
  32. You should always monitor a client taking aminoglycosides for?
    nephrotoxicity
  33. What may occur if a person taking aminoglycosides takes anesthetics or muscle relaxants?
    • 1. neuromuscular blockade
    • 2.respiratory paralysis
  34. When a patient is taking aminglycosides, you must provide good hydration in order to reduce risk of? (2)
    • 1. nephrotoxicity
    • 2. neurotoxicity
  35. When a patient is taking aminoglycosides, avoid drugs that produce? (3)
    • 1. ototoxicity
    • 2. nephrotoxicity
    • 3. neurotoxicity
  36. How are sulfonamides usually taken?
    orally
  37. What are sulfonamides usually prescribed for?
    UTI's
  38. What may sulfonamides decrease?
    WBC's
  39. What do the relatives of sulfonamides usually start with?
    Sulfa-
  40. What is important to know about sulfonamides before giving medication?
    must be on empty stomach
  41. A client taking sulfonamides must maintain an adequate fluid intake to prevent? (2)
    • 1. crystalluria (crystals forming in urine)
    • 2. stone formation
  42. What is good advice to give someone who is taking sulfonamides when it comes to tanning?
    do not go in sun to prevent phototoxic reaction.
  43. 1. Common antifugals are usually needed in combination with what and 2. why?
    • 1. antibiotics
    • 2. due to overgrowth of fungi when normal flora are killed
  44. What are the 2 common antifungals?
    • 1. nystatin
    • 2. miconazole
  45. What is nystatin used to treat?
    candida albicans (thrush)
  46. What is the usual form for nystatin?
    mouth rinse
  47. Who usually ends up needing nystatin?
    people on chemo with altered immune systems
  48. What is miconazole used to treat? (3)
    • 1. candida
    • OTC:
    • 2. athletes foot
    • 3. vaginal yeast infections
  49. What is the common antiviral?
    acyclovar
  50. Why can many viral infections not be treated?
    Because by the time the virus is detected most of the replication is over with and that is what the antivirals deal with.
  51. Acyclovar patients doses depend on? (2)
    • Type of:
    • 1. herpes
    • 2. varicella
    • being treated
  52. When there is a IV infusion of acyclovir, what levels should be monitored? (2)
    • 1. BUN
    • 2. creatinine
    • because it can be nephrotoxic
  53. A patient on acyclovir IV site shhould be monitored for?
    phlebitis
  54. What kind of complications could happen because an immuno-compromised patient uses acyclovir?
    fatal complications
  55. What is acyclovir used to treat?
    HSV
  56. What is HSV?
    herpes simplex virus
  57. What caused the mass production of antivirals?
    HIV/AIDS
  58. What are interferons?
    seem to sheild healthy cells from getting a virus.
  59. What are interferons used to treat? (4)
    • 1. hepatitis C
    • 2. MS
    • 3. melanoma
    • 4. other chronic conditions
  60. What are the common antiparasitics?
    • 1. metronidazole
    • 2. Quinine
    • 3. head lice treatments
  61. What is another name for metronidazole?
    flagyl
  62. What is flagyl used to treat? (2)
    • 1. trichomonas (STD)
    • 2. anaerobic bacterial infections
  63. What S&S may flagyl cause?
    metallic taste
  64. What is quinine used to treat?
    malaria
  65. What is malaria?
    parasitic infection in the blood
  66. What is important to follow when treating headlice and why?
    The directions EXACTLY, because is can be toxic to the person
  67. What are the general considerations when taking antimicrobial drugs?
    • 1. monitor for diarrhea/vomiting
    • 2. watch for overgrowth of other flora
    • 3. Watch for prolonged diarrhea wich may indicate "superinfection" (overgrowth of unwanted bacteria in the intestine)
    • 4. Take ALL doses
    • 5. Notify dr. if side effects are severe
    • 6. call 911 if allergic reaction appears, consider wearing Med bracelet
  68. What are the usual bacteria to cause "superinfection"?
    Clostirdium difficule "C diff"
  69. What is extravasation?
    Chemotx drugs get into tissue rather than blood.
  70. What is stomatitis?
    inflammation of the mouth
  71. What medication is administered for Gout?
    allopurinol
  72. You must monitor site during chemotherapy administration every how many minutes?
    every 15 minutes

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