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What does the automaticity perspective investigate?
Investigates how our are behaviors are influenced by situational influences
What is implicit egotism?
Provide an example.
We like things that remind us of ourselves.
- Ex: ppl live in places that sound like their name (Philip lives in
most of daily life is driven by automatic, non conscous mental processes that are initiated by the environment
conscious evaluative reaction to some event
feeling state not clearly linked to some event
automatic response that something is good or bad
misattribution of arousal?
arousal may arise for one reason buy get another label, terby producing a diff. reaction
Why do we have emotions?
- 1. promote belongingness
- 2. guide thinking and learning
- 3. impact how we feel in the future
people judge something as good or bad by asking "how do i feel about it?"
ablility to predict ones emotional reactions to future events
broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions?
positive emotions expand ones attention and mind set
global evaluations toward some object or issue
automatic, non-conscious (Ex: predjudice)
controlled and conscious (Ex. Political view)
Why do people have attitudes?
- 1. help us deal with complex world
- 2. provide immediate evaluaitons
- 3. helpful in making choices
IAT (Implicit Association Test)?
measures implicit attitudes and beliefs that ppl are aieht unwilling or unable to report
- people’s attitudes become more extreme as they
- reflect on them, just thinking about an issue can move a person toward holding
- a more extreme attitude. This is
- especially likely to occur in ppl who have strong initial attitudes.
Cognitive dissonance theory?
psychological discompfort produced when attitude and behavior are inconsistent
What are the four situations that increase attitude-behavior consistency?
- 1. Measure attitude is specific to topic: the more relevant an attitude is to behavior the more attitude behavior consistency.
- 2. Attitude is measured close to behavior: max attitude behavior consistency occurs when attitudes and behaviors are measured at the same time.
- 3.Relevant attitude is most salient (most important): The attitude most salient is most likely to influence behavior.
- 4. No situational pressures: when situational pressures are strong attitudes they are not as predictive of behavior (when under pressure not sure what your behavior will produce since you are just going along and doing it)
once beliefs are formed, they are resistant to change
Asch's Line Test results?
33% they student conformed
a genuine inner belief that others are right
outwardly going along with the group but maintaining a private, inner belief that the group is wrong
Foot in the door?
small request.. then ask for larger one (Ex:small sign --> large billboard)
Safe Driving Study results? (foot in the door)
20% didnt sign, 55% did sign
low cost request... reeal the hidden cost
bait- and switch?
draw person in... switch to less attractive offer
Why do the foot-in-the door, low-ball, and bait-and-switch work?
people have a need for consistency
Why do the door-in-face and thats not all work?
Reciprocity: when a stranger does something kind for you, you feel an obligations to do something nice or kind in return
inflated request.. retreat to smaller one
Two techniques for capturing and disrupting attention?
Pique Technique and Disrupt-then-reframe
- influence technique in which one captures ppl’s attention, as by making a novel request.
- Ex: homeless person instead of asking if someone can spare change they ask can you spare 17cents.
influence technique in which one disrupts critical thinking by introducing an unexpected element, then reframes the message in a positive light. Ex: telling someone that something costs 300 pennies rather than $3, more ppl will say yes to the 300 pennies can they believe they are getting a deal.
more persuaded by ppl who are experts and trustworthy
overtime, ppl forget the source of the message
Elaboration likelihood model (ELM)?
Duplex mind model, central route, peripheral route
Duplex mind model?
key variable in persuasuion is amnt of thought/elaboration given to arguments
What factors persuade people whoa re using the central route?
Careful/ thoughtful consideration of the arguments presented; argument quality is important
When is the central route likely to occur?
- when ppl have:
- 1. motivation to process info
- 2. ability to process info
What are some peripheral cues?
- 1. Expert knows best
- 2. More arguments, the better
- 3. Good products, more expensive
- 4. What is beautiful is good
expose to weak arguments, perosn generates counterarguments
when ppl are forewarned before they are going to be persuaded
Milgrims study results?
63% went all the way
What are the four ways that a minority can sway a majority?
- 1. consistent in its position
- 2. foceful/demanding
- 3. otherwise similar to majority (no difference than group)
- 4. not appear to be driven by self-interest (dont let them know that your pro-something)
Reacting to another persons emotional state by experiencing the same emotional state
the idea that empathy motivates ppl to reduce other peoples distress as by helping or conforming
negaitve state relief theory?
the idea that ppl help other in order to relieve their own stress
What are the five steps to helping?
- 1. notice that somehting is happening
- 2. interpret meaning of event
- 3. take responsibility for providing help
- 4. know how to help
- 5. provide help
look to others for cues about how to behave while they are looking at you
smoke filled room study result?
75% help when alone, 10% help with others
seizure study result?
85% will help alone, 31% will help with others