APEuroHistory

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delwood
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43864
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APEuroHistory
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2010-10-20 21:32:10
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AP European History
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Review Unit 2 terms
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  1. The Politics and Wars of Religion (Chapter 13 pgs 359-365 & Chapter 15 pgs 400-406)
  2. Word
    Definition
  3. French Wars of Religion
    French civil wars. Calvinism vs. Catholicism
  4. Huguenots
    French Calvinists
  5. Catherine d'Medici
    Looked to religious compromise as a way to defuse the political tensions but found to her consternation that both sides possessed their share of religious fanatics unwilling to make concessions
  6. Guise v. Bourbon
    • Guise: headed the extreme catholic party (ultra catholics) favored strict opposition to the Huguenots
    • Bourbon: Calvinist family
  7. Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
    1562, powerful duke of Guise massacred a peaceful congregation of the Huguenots at Vassy.
  8. Henry IV
    Issued the edict of Nantes. Politique, originally a Huguenot..converted to Catholicism
  9. Edict of Nantes
    Issues by Henry IV, Huguenots have rights
  10. Philip II
    Attempts to make spain a great power led to large debts and crushing taxes, his military actions in defense of Catholicism ended in failure and misfortune in both France and the Netherlands
  11. William of Orange
    Wished to unify all 17 provinces of the Netherlands.�stipulated that all provinces would stand together under Williams leadership, respect religious differences, and demand that Spanish troops be withdrawn.
  12. "sea beggars"
    Dutch Pirates
  13. Queen Elizabeth I
    Avoided open military action against any major power. Intelligent/Learned
  14. Act of Supremacy
    Henry III, Elizabeth I. Religious for political power, control of lands�noble support
  15. Act of Uniformity
    Restored the church service of the Book of Common Prayer from the reign of Edward VI with some revisions to make it more acceptable to catholics
  16. Mary �Queen of Scots�
    Ousted from Scotland by rebellious Calvinist nobles. Beheaded.
  17. Spanish Armanda
    Had neither the shiops not the troops that Philip had planned to send. Sank. Sunk. Died. Sinked.
  18. Battle of Lepanto
  19. 30 yrs war
    �last of the religious wars�
  20. Protestant Union
  21. Catholic League
  22. Bohemian Phase
  23. Defenestration of Prague
  24. Danish Phase
  25. Albrecht von Wallenstein
  26. Edict of Restitution
  27. Gustavus Adolphus
  28. Franco-Swedish Phase
  29. Peace of Westphalia (1648)
  30. Exploration: Chapter 14
  31. Word
    Definition
  32. 3 G's-Gold, Glory, God
    The motivation for European explorations
  33. Prince Henry the Navigator
    Seeked a Christian kingdom as an ally against the Muslims, acquired trade opportunities of Portugal, Extending Christianity
  34. Ptolemy�s Geography
    Book containing his map of earth. Three Continents, Two oceans
  35. Ship Innovations
    Bigger Hull, Different Sails, bigger in general
  36. Astrolabe
    locating and predicting the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars
  37. Bartholomeu Dias & Cape of Good Hope
    First to Round the Cape of Good Hop-turned back b/c feared mutiny from crew
  38. Vasco Da Gama
    Rounded cape of good hope and discovered new route to india
  39. Malacca
    monarchy was abolished when the Portuguese conquered it in 1511
  40. Christopher Columbus
    Discovered Americas-thought it was India
  41. Ferdinand Magellan
    • Portuguese Explorer. obtained Spanish nationality
    • in order to serve King Charles I of Spain in search
    • of a westward route to the "Spice
    • Islands"
  42. Treaty of Toresillas
    divided the newly discovered lands outside�Europe�between�Spain�and�Portugal
  43. Conquistadors
    conqueror" in the Spanish
  44. Hernan Cortes
    ed an expedition that caused the�fall of the Aztec Empire
  45. Montezuma
  46. Francisco Pizarro
    conqueror of the�Incan Empire�and founder of�Lima
  47. Encomienda System
    Permitted the conquering Spaniards to collect tribute from the natives and use them as laborers, in return holders were supposed to protect Indians wages, and supervise their spiritual needs
  48. Dutch East India Company
    �chartered company�established in 1602, first multinational cooperation
  49. African Slave Trade
    High Death Rate. 10% died on ships. Came mostly form Africa
  50. British East India Company
    formed initially for pursuing trade with the�East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the�Indian subcontinent�and China
  51. Joint Stock Trading Companies
    A company or association that raises capital by selling shares to individuals who receive dividends on their investments while a board of directors runs the company
  52. Mercantilism
    form of�economic nationalism,[1]�that holds that the prosperity of a nation is dependent upon its supply of�capital, and that the�global volume�of�international trade�is "unchangeable"
  53. Columbian Exchange
    form of�economic nationalism,[1]�that holds that the prosperity of a nation is dependent upon its supply of�capital, and that the�global volume�of�international trade�is "unchangeable"
  54. Absolutism (Chapter 15 pgs 408-430)
  55. Word
    Definition
  56. Sovereign
    one that exercises supreme authority within a limited sphere
  57. Divine Right
    The belief that monarchs receive their power directly from god and are responsible for no one except god.
  58. Bishop Jacques Bossuet
    �political absolutism�and the�divine right of kings. First government was divinely ordained so that humans could live in an organized society
  59. Louis XIII
    establishment of the�Acad�mie fran�aise�and participation in the�Thirty Years' War�against the�House of Habsburg.[1]�France's�greatest victory in�the war�came at the�Battle of Rocroi, five days after Louis' death
  60. Cardinal Richelieu
    King Louis XIII's�chief minister. Broke Power of nobility. Kings law = Only Law
  61. Intendents
    Royal officials in 17th c. France who were sent into the provinces to execute the orders of the central government
  62. Taille
    direct land�tax�on the�French�peasantry�and non-nobles in�Ancien R�gime�France. The tax was imposed on each household and based on how much land it held.
  63. Louis XIV
    Increase of power and desire for glory led him to wage war
  64. �the Sun King�
    Louis XIV
  65. L�estate c�est moi
    �I am the state� Louis XIV
  66. Cardinal Mazarin
    succeeded his mentor,�Cardinal Richelieu
  67. Fronde
    �Revolt. Nobles temporarily allied with the members of the Parlement of Paris who opposed the new taxes levied by the government to pay the costs of the 30 yrs war
  68. One king, one law, one faith!
    -Louis XIV
  69. Edict of Fountainbleau
    issued by�Louis XIV�of�France, revoked the�Edict of Nantes�and ordered the destruction of�Huguenot�churches, as well as the closing of�Protestant�schools
  70. Jean-Baptiste Colbert
    �French minister of finance. He achieved a reputation for his work of improving the state of French�manufacturing�and bringing the�economy�back from the brink of�bankruptcy.
  71. Versailles
    city renowned for its�ch�teau,
  72. War of Spanish Succession
    Over the succession to the Spanish throne. End of war came with the Peaces of Utrect, confirmed Philip V as the Spanish ruler, initiating the Spanish Bourbon Dynasty
  73. Peace of Utrecht
    Ended the Spanish war os succession
  74. Debt of Philip II & III (Spain)
    Philip II went bankrupt in 1596 from extensive expenditures on war and Philip III did the same by spending a fortune on his court
  75. Prussia
    German kingdom
  76. Hohenzollern Dynasty (Prussia)
    Inherited lands in the Rhine Valley in western Germany. nine years later, they received the duchy of Prussia. By the 17th c. the dominions of the house of Hohenzollern, now called Brandenburg-Prussia, consisted of three disconnected masses in western, central, and eastern Germany
  77. Frederick William (Prussia)
    Established the General War Commissariat to levy taxes for the army and oversee its growth and training
  78. General War Commissariat (Prussia)
    Levied taxes for the army�evolved into an agency for civil government aswell
  79. Junkers (Prussia)
    Prussian Landed aristocracy, served as officers in the army
  80. Habsburgs (Austria)
    Holy Roman Emperors. Had hopes of creating an empire in Germany that failed
  81. Ottoman Turks (Decline of)
    In the 16th and 17th c. the ottoman empire possessed an effective bureaucracy and military. During this period, it conquered much of the Balkans and made inroads into eastern Europe. however, by 1699 it had lost the farthest reaches of its European territory and would never again pose a serious threat to Europe
  82. Hungary & Balkans (1699)
  83. Principality of Moscow
  84. Ivan IV (the Terrible)
    Expanded the territories of Russia eastward after finding westward expansion blocked by the powerful Swedish and polish states.
  85. Extended the autocracy of the tsar by crushing the power of the Russian nobility, known as the boyars
  86. Time of troubles
  87. Tsar Michael Romanov
  88. Peter the great
    wished to westernize Russia, especially in the realm of Technical skills. His foremost goal was the creation of a strong army and navy in order to make Russia a great power. Credited with the formation of the first Russian army.
  89. Russian Navy
  90. Table of Ranks
    Instituted by Peter the Great. instituted the Table of Ranks to create opportunities for nonnobles to serve the state and join the nobility.
  91. Civil offices were ranked according to 14 levels. When a nonnoble reached the 8th level he acquired noble status
  92. Westernization
    Process where societies come to adopt western culture
  93. St. Petersburg
  94. Dutch Golden Age (1648-1715)
    United Provinces of the Netherlands became the core of the modern dutch state.
  95. Each province had an official known as a stadholder who was responsible for leading the army and maintaining order
  96. Stadholder
  97. House of Orange
  98. Stuart Dynasty (England)
  99. King James I
  100. King Charles I
  101. Petition of Right (1628)
  102. Long Parliament
  103. English Civil War (Roundheads vs. Cavaliers)
  104. Puritans
    English Protestants inspired by Calvinist theology who wished to remove all traces of Catholicism from the Church of England
  105. Oliver Cromwell
  106. New Model Army
  107. Rump Parliament
  108. Levellers
  109. England�s �republic�
  110. Army Council
  111. Instrument of Government
  112. The Restoration
  113. King Charles II
  114. Declaration of Indulgence
  115. Test Act (1673)
  116. Whigs
  117. Tories
  118. King James II
  119. Glorious Revolution
    Over Who would be the monarchy?
  120. Mary and William of Orange
    Monarchs of England, confirmed by glorious revolution
  121. Bill of Rights (1689)
    Affirmed Parliament�s right to make laws and levy taxes and made it impossible for kings to oppose or do without parliament by stipulating that standing armies could be raised only with the consent of Parliament
  122. Toleration Act (1689)
  123. Pride�s Purge
  124. Lord Protector (Cromwell)
  125. Flourishing European Culture (Chapter 15 pgs 431-436)
  126. Word
    Definition
  127. Mannerism
    Art style. Attempted to break down the High Renaissance Principles of balance, harmony, and moderation. Italian Mannerist painters deliberately distorted the rules of proportion by portraying elongated figures that conveyed a sense of suffering and a strong emotional atmosphere filled with anxiety and confusion
  128. El Greco
    �the greek�. From crete, attempted to create a world of intense emotion
  129. Baroque
    Resisted in France, England, and Holland. Replaced Mannerism. Baroque artists sought to bring together the classical ideals of Renaissances art with religious revival. Dramatic effects. Richly Detailed.
  130. Gian Lorenzo Bernini
    Completed Saint Peter�s Basilica at the Vatican. Italian architect. Action, Exuberance, Dramatic effects. Ecstasy of Saint Teresa
  131. Artemisia Gentileschi
    First woman to be elected to the Florentine Academy of Design
  132. French Classicism
    Committed to the classical values of the High Renaissance. Emphasis on clarity, simplicity, balance, and harmony Its triumph reflected the shift in the 17th c. French society from chaos to order.
  133. Nicholas Poussin
    Scenes from classical mythology, orderliness of landscapes, postures of his figures. Exemplified French Classicism
  134. Dutch Realism
    Dutch Painters were interested in the realistic portrayal of secular everyday life.
  135. Rembrandt
    Colorful painting. He was prolific and successful, but he turned away from materialistic success to follow his own artistic path. in the process, he lost public support and died bankrupt
  136. William Shakespeare
    Best known for writing plays, also an actor and shareholder.
  137. Lope de Vega
    Plays characterized as witty, charming, actionpacked, and realistic. Wrote his plays to please audience.
  138. Jean-Baptiste Moliere
    Phedre. Perfected the French neoclassical tragic style, focused on conflicts

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