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NephrItic Syndrome vs NephrOtic Syndrome:
- NephIitic Syndrome:
- -Capillary changes.
- -Azotemia & oliguria.
- -Immune, inflammation, can't pee or see.
- NephrOtic Syndrome:
- -Massive proteinuria.
- -GBM changes.
- -Piss it all away & get fat (edema & hyperlipidemia).
What is the name of hereditary glomerulonephritis which develops in early childhood?
- Alport Syndrome.
- Results in renal failure in the 20's.
Is Alport Syndrome associated with Nephrotic Syndrome or Nephritic Syndrome?
What are the 4 characteristics associated with Alport Syndrome?
- 1. Nerve deafness.
- 2. Lens dislocation.
- 3. Posterior cataracts.
- 4. Corneal dystrophy.
True or false: Chronic Glomerulonephritis is the end stages of Glomerulonephritis, & is associated only with Nephritic Syndrome.
False: both nephritic & nephrotic syndrome.
What are the 5 clinical manifestations of nephrOtic syndrome?
- 1. Proteinuria: loss >3.5 mg/dL per day, due to damage to glomerulus.
- 2. Hypoalbuminemia: results in oncotic pressure changes.
- 3. Generalized swelling (or edema): due to increased aldosterone resulting in decreased blood flow.
- 4. Hyperlipidemia.
- 5. Lipiduria.
What are the 6 major manifestations of nephrOtic syndrome?
- 1. Increased permeability of glomerulus for proteins (predominately albumin).
- 2. Loss of proteins.
- 3. Abnormal albumin & globulin concentration.
- 4. Inversion of albumin-globulin ratio.
- 5. Fatty casts in urine.
- 6. Edema (non-pitting).
What is meant by the inversion of the albumin-globulin ratio associated with nephrOtic syndrome?
- Albumin decreases.
- Globulin increases.
- Ratio becomes less than 1.
What are the 3 main causes of nephrOtic syndrome?
- 1. Primary glomerular diseases: lipid nephrosis, membranous glomerulonephritis, focal glomerulonephritis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.
- 2. Systemic diseases: diabetes mellitus or amyloidosis.
- 3. Chronic glomerulonephritis: end stage of glomerulonephritis.
Lipid nephrosis is characterized by heavy proteinuria, protein in the walls of the convoluted tubules, & is found in young children. Is it associated with nephritic or nephrotic syndrome?
- NephrOtic syndrome.
- Lipid nephrosis:
- heavy proteinuria.
- walls loaded with protein.
- develops in canals (convoluted tubules).
- young children.
True or false: Focal glomerulosclerosis occurs in the elderly, and is a mild disease.
- Focal glomerulosclerosis:
- Dangerous disease.
- Develops into chronic glomerulonephritis.
- Switches from acute to chronic.
- Occurs in young people.
Amyloidosis leads to the accumulation of what substance?
- Extracellular deposition of protein.
- Incurable disease.
- Within 1-3 results in chronic renal failure.
- Most vulnerable organs: kidney, heart, liver.
Chronic glomerulonephritis leads to the development of chronic renal failure within how long of a period?
- 20-25 years = slow progression.
- End stage of glomerulonephritis.
- Kidney becomes coarse & granular due to scar tissue.
- Kidney size is smaller (contracted).
- Waste products are released via alternative ways.
Which 3 systems are involved with alternatively ridding the body of waste products during chronic glomerulonephritis?
- 1. Through the alimentary tract: vomitting & nausea.
- 2. Through the respiratory system: urine smell on breath.
- 3. Through the skin: looks like frost on the skin, due to nitrogenous crystals.
- Frequency of conversions to chronic glomerulonephritis:
- 1. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (nephrItic): most common overall.
- 2. Focal glomerulosclerosis (nephrOtic): most common nephrOtic.
- 3. Membranous glomerulonephritis (nephrOtic).
- 4. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (nephrOtic).
- 5. IgA glomerulonephritis (nephrItic).
- 6. Others.
- 7. Post streptococcal glomerulonephritis (nephrItic): least common.