Path II Quiz 2

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dcmommy13
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43980
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Path II Quiz 2
Updated:
2010-10-26 11:50:55
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Life University
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Path II Lecture
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  1. NephrItic Syndrome vs NephrOtic Syndrome:
    • NephIitic Syndrome:
    • -Inflammatory.
    • -Capillary changes.
    • -Azotemia & oliguria.
    • -Immune, inflammation, can't pee or see.

    • NephrOtic Syndrome:
    • -Massive proteinuria.
    • -GBM changes.
    • -Piss it all away & get fat (edema & hyperlipidemia).
  2. What is the name of hereditary glomerulonephritis which develops in early childhood?
    • Alport Syndrome.
    • Results in renal failure in the 20's.
  3. Is Alport Syndrome associated with Nephrotic Syndrome or Nephritic Syndrome?
    NephrItic Syndrome.
  4. What are the 4 characteristics associated with Alport Syndrome?
    • 1. Nerve deafness.
    • 2. Lens dislocation.
    • 3. Posterior cataracts.
    • 4. Corneal dystrophy.
  5. True or false: Chronic Glomerulonephritis is the end stages of Glomerulonephritis, & is associated only with Nephritic Syndrome.
    False: both nephritic & nephrotic syndrome.
  6. What are the 5 clinical manifestations of nephrOtic syndrome?
    • 1. Proteinuria: loss >3.5 mg/dL per day, due to damage to glomerulus.
    • 2. Hypoalbuminemia: results in oncotic pressure changes.
    • 3. Generalized swelling (or edema): due to increased aldosterone resulting in decreased blood flow.
    • 4. Hyperlipidemia.
    • 5. Lipiduria.
  7. What are the 6 major manifestations of nephrOtic syndrome?
    • 1. Increased permeability of glomerulus for proteins (predominately albumin).
    • 2. Loss of proteins.
    • 3. Abnormal albumin & globulin concentration.
    • 4. Inversion of albumin-globulin ratio.
    • 5. Fatty casts in urine.
    • 6. Edema (non-pitting).
  8. What is meant by the inversion of the albumin-globulin ratio associated with nephrOtic syndrome?
    • Albumin decreases.
    • Globulin increases.
    • Ratio becomes less than 1.
  9. What are the 3 main causes of nephrOtic syndrome?
    • 1. Primary glomerular diseases: lipid nephrosis, membranous glomerulonephritis, focal glomerulonephritis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.
    • 2. Systemic diseases: diabetes mellitus or amyloidosis.
    • 3. Chronic glomerulonephritis: end stage of glomerulonephritis.
  10. Lipid nephrosis is characterized by heavy proteinuria, protein in the walls of the convoluted tubules, & is found in young children. Is it associated with nephritic or nephrotic syndrome?
    • NephrOtic syndrome.
    • Lipid nephrosis:
    • heavy proteinuria.
    • walls loaded with protein.
    • develops in canals (convoluted tubules).
    • young children.
  11. True or false: Focal glomerulosclerosis occurs in the elderly, and is a mild disease.
    • False.
    • Focal glomerulosclerosis:
    • Dangerous disease.
    • Develops into chronic glomerulonephritis.
    • Switches from acute to chronic.
    • Occurs in young people.
  12. Amyloidosis leads to the accumulation of what substance?
    • Proteins.
    • Extracellular deposition of protein.
    • Incurable disease.
    • Within 1-3 results in chronic renal failure.
    • Most vulnerable organs: kidney, heart, liver.
  13. Chronic glomerulonephritis leads to the development of chronic renal failure within how long of a period?
    • 20-25 years = slow progression.
    • End stage of glomerulonephritis.
    • Kidney becomes coarse & granular due to scar tissue.
    • Kidney size is smaller (contracted).
    • Waste products are released via alternative ways.
  14. Which 3 systems are involved with alternatively ridding the body of waste products during chronic glomerulonephritis?
    • 1. Through the alimentary tract: vomitting & nausea.
    • 2. Through the respiratory system: urine smell on breath.
    • 3. Through the skin: looks like frost on the skin, due to nitrogenous crystals.
    • Frequency of conversions to chronic glomerulonephritis:
    • 1. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (nephrItic): most common overall.
    • 2. Focal glomerulosclerosis (nephrOtic): most common nephrOtic.
    • 3. Membranous glomerulonephritis (nephrOtic).
    • 4. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (nephrOtic).
    • 5. IgA glomerulonephritis (nephrItic).
    • 6. Others.
    • 7. Post streptococcal glomerulonephritis (nephrItic): least common.

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