Nurs110 ppt3

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  1. SOCIAL CONTEXT OF NURSING
    • Many historical and social factors influence the current social context of the
    • nursing profession

    These factors were likely influential when you chose to enter the nursing profession
  2. SOCIAL FACTORS INFLUENTIAL TO NURSING
    Gender

    The image of nursing

    National population trends

    Technology
  3. Gender vs. Sex
    —Sex = Biological

    Gender = Social
  4. Historical Influence on Gender
    —Early nursing schools only accepted females

    —Expected to be respectable women with lady-like qualities

    Submissive

    Sensitive
  5. 1960’s: Women’s movement
    Societal changes for women

    Women now entered professions other than nursing and education

    Nursing profession now had more competition for recruiting intelligent men and women

    Improved salaries and working conditions for nurses

    Nurses and nursing students became more politically involved
  6. GENDER – MEN IN NURSING
    Traditionally men in health care were physicians and women were nurses

    After women’s movement, women increasingly entered medicine and other health care professions

    Men were still slow to enter nursing

    Men in nursing sometimes experience role strain

    Even today some patients mistakenly assume all men delivering care are physicians

    Imbalance between genders in nursing is seen as a barrier to nursing’s recognition as a profession
  7. American Assembly for Men in Nursing (AAMN)
    —Founded in 1974

    —Membership open to men and women

    • “The purpose of AAMN is to provide a framework for nurses as a group to meet,
    • discuss, and influence factors which affect men as nurses.” (AAMN, 2010)
  8. GENDER – POPULAR CULTURE EXAMPLES
    Meet the Parents

    —Gaylord “Greg” Focker (Ben Stiller)

    —Character works as an emergency department nurse

    The “Male Nurse Action Figure”

    —“Physicians prescribe. Nurses Provide.”
  9. IMAGE OF NURSING
    Ever hear someone say “Image is everything”?

    Society’s understanding of the nursing profession is molded by images

    Images of nursing are often portrayed in the media

    These images often do not represent the complexity and range of modern nursing
  10. The "Older" Image of Nursing
    The nursing cap and white uniform were formerly identifying symbols of the nurse

    The traditional nurse uniform and cap began its demise in the 1970’s and today is mostly extinct

    After the demise of the cap and white uniform some expressed concerns that the RN is often not distinguishable from other members of the health care team

    • Many facilities now require a special uniform or identifier so patients can identify
    • the RN

    —e.g at HUP all nurses wear navy blue

    —e.g. at Magee RN’s have a very large “RN” label above their name badge
  11. ADDRESSING THE NURSE
    Physicians usually introduce themselves to clients and team members as doctor and their last name

    Nurses usually introduce themselves to clients and team members as their first name only

    • Some nurses fear using formal titles with patients will be harmful to establishing
    • relationships

    Using formal titles would show more respect for the nursing profession

    “Nurse Ratched” from One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest was a harmful image to nursing

    —Some nurses may not want to use this formal title with their clients because of the “Nurse Ratched” image
  12. PUBLIC OPINION OF NURSING
    Despite the public’s poor understanding of what nurses actually do, nurses usually score favorably in public opinion surveys

    Nurses repeatedly score amongst the highest of all professions in areas such as trust, respect, and prestige.
  13. WOODHULL STUDY OF NURSING AND THE MEDIA
    • Purpose:
    • *—Survey and analyze the portrayal of health care and nursing in U.S. newspapers, magazines, and industry trade publications

    • Key Findings:
    • *—Nurses are often invisible in the media
    • *—Nurses were rarely cited in the media
    • *—Often times a nursing source would have been more appropriate to use than the source that was used

    Recommendations:

    *—Nursing and the media need to be more proactive in establishing dialogue

    —*The media should change “ask your doctor” to “ask your health care provider”

    —*The media should better distinguish research “doctors” from medical “doctors”

    *—The media should include more information by and about nurses
  14. JOHNSON AND JOHNSON CAMPAIGN
    • *A multimillion dollar campaign by the J&J corporation to enhance the image of
    • nursing

    *The campaign included

    —Television advertisements

    —Written media

    —Scholarships

    —Fund raising

    —Research

    www. Discovernursing.com

    Early information indicates that this campaign is positively influencing the image of nursing
  15. IMAGE OF NURSING
    Taking responsibility….

    Nurses must reinforce positive images

    Nurse must speak out against negative images

    Nurses (and nursing students) must always present themselves in a professional manner to reinforce the positive image of nursing
  16. NATIONAL POPULATION TRENDS
    Nurses have historically responded to poverty, wars, epidemics, and social movements

    Nurses must be proactive in adapting to meet the needs of a changing nation and world
  17. AGING OF AMERICA
    Because of improvements in health care, people are living longer

    In 2006 there were 37.3 million people over the age of 65 in the U.S. (CDC, 2006)

    People over age 75 are more likely to be widowed, female, living alone, poor, and suffering from a chronic health condition

    —This population thus uses a disproportionate share of health services compared to other age groups
  18. Nursing Profession Responds
    —Gerontological nursing courses incorporated into pre-licensure nursing curriculum

    —Gerontological specialty nursing certifications available as generalist, clinical nurse specialist, and nurse practitioner
  19. CULTURAL DIVERSITY
    America has always been a “melting pot” of cultures, ethnicities, and races

    • Vital for members of the health care systems to be familiar with demographic
    • characteristics of the population served

    The U.S. continues experience immigration

    • Many cultural and ethnic groups now prefer to preserve their heritage rather than
    • becoming “Americanized”

    Projections indicate that the Anglo-American (white) culture will become a minority in the U.S. by the middle of the 21st century

    Nurses must also recognize that disease prevalence varies among certain ethnic and racial groups
  20. Nursing Profession Responds on Cultural Diversity
    —Cultural education incorporated into education programs

    —The American Association of College of Nurses recommends that baccalaureate nursing education programs be grounded in liberal education to prepare graduates to work with culturally diverse populations (2008)

    —Minority groups only represent about 10.6% of the RN workforce in the U.S. (U.S. DHHS, 2005)

    • —The nursing profession is making efforts to recruit more minorities into the
    • profession
  21. TECHNOLOGIC DEVELOPMENTS
    *Genetics:

    —Drexel one of the first programs to require nursing genetics course

    *Biomedical:

    —Increased use of high-tech equipment by nurses

    —This equipment is great, but always remember the client is a human and not a machine!

    *Information:

    —Most health care facilities have moved to computerized charting and medical records

    —Obama administration wants healthcare to go “paperless”, creating records that can be easily transmitted between health care facilities

    —Creates concerns for confidentiality and privacy

    • *Knowledge:
    • Use of technology to generate knowledge

    —iPod touch, SimMan
  22. EARLY NURSING EDUCATION
    1860: Florence Nightingale opened the first organized school of nursing

    1879: The first nursing schools opened in the U.S.

    These programs were hospital based and awarded graduates a diploma

    These programs primarily existed to staff the hospital and not necessarily to educate the students
  23. EDUCATIONAL PATHWAYS TO NURSING TODAY
    Three different pathways to becoming an RN exist in the U.S. today

    —Diploma programs

    —Baccalaureate degree programs

    —Associate degree programs

    All graduates take the same NCLEX-RN to earn licensure

    Having 3 pathways is confusing to both nurses and the general public
  24. DIPLOMA PROGRAMS
    Earliest form of nursing education in the U.S.

    The number of diploma programs has significantly decreased since the 1960’s

    • This decrease is a result of a health care system that demands higher academic
    • preparation

    Modern diploma programs no longer use students as “cheap staff”

    Today most diploma programs are 2 years long

    • Credits earned at diploma programs often cannot be transferred to a college or
    • university because hospital based programs are not part of the U.S. higher
    • education system
  25. BACCALAUREATE DEGREE PROGRAMS (HISTORY)
    First bachelors program founded in 1909 at University of Minnesota

    Brown report (1948) recommended that nursing education take place in colleges and universities rather than hospitals

    1965, the ANA recommended that the baccalaureate degree be the minimum education requirement to enter nursing
  26. BACCALAUREATE DEGREE PROGRAMS
    Today programs combine nursing courses with general education courses

    Programs offered by senior colleges and universities

    Generally 4 years in length

    Higher educational requirements for faculty

    BSN graduates prepared for leadership roles and graduate programs

    BSN graduates in higher demand than associate and diploma graduates
  27. ASSOCIATE DEGREE PROGRAMS
    Began in the 1950’s post World War II to accommodate a nursing shortage

    Popular because of the shorter length and lower tuition of community colleges

    Because of the number of credits required, associate degree programs usually take longer than 2 years to complete

    Associate degree programs are easily used as a step toward a bachelor’s degree because community colleges are accredited the the higher education system of the U.S.
  28. ALTERNATE EDUCATION PROGRAMS
    Baccalaureate programs for Registered Nurses

    —RN-BSN programs

    —Increase the quantity of baccalaureate prepared nurses

    • Accelerated
    • programs for 2nd degree baccalaureate students

    —ACE program
  29. Master’s education
    —Traditionally require 18-24 months of full time study post BSN

    —Curriculum includes theory, research, clinical practice/specialty courses

    —Master’s degree programs require an area of specialization

    ¢CNS

    ¢NP

    ¢Education

    ¢Informatics

    ¢Nurse-midwifery

    ¢Nurse anesthesia

    ¢Administration

    ¢Many other areas of specialization…

    ¢Most programs award of Master of Science or a Master of Science in Nursing
  30. Doctoral education
    —Research Degrees in Nursing

    ¢Doctor of Nursing Science (DNSc)

    ¢Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (Ph.D)

    ¢Doctor of Education in Nursing (Ed.D)

    —Practice Doctorate in Nursing (DNP)

    ¢Doctor of Nursing Practice

    • ¢AACN recommends that the education for APRN’s
    • change from the MSN to the DNP

    ¢Still controversy about this recommendation

    —Hybrid Doctorate in Nursing (Part research & part practice)

    ¢The one and only DrNP @ Drexel

    —Non-nursing doctorates

    • ¢Some nurses with MSN’s choose to earn a doctorate in a
    • discipline other than nursing
  31. CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS
    ¢Certification validates knowledge and competency beyond licensure

    ¢Certification awarded by a certifying body

    ¢Requirements for certification determined by the certifying body
  32. CONTINUING EDUCATION
    ¢Continuing Education (CE) is required by most states to renew licensure and required by most certifying bodies to earn recertification

    ¢The American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) determines the standards for CE.

    ¢Usually 1 hour of education = 1 CE

    ¢Be certain to know the CE requirements of your state and/or certifying body

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