patho ch18&19 review for quiz

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ekruge01
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patho ch18&19 review for quiz
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2010-10-22 22:33:43
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  1. What may heart function be impaired by? (5)
    • 1. conduction system abnormalities
    • 2. interference of blood supply to myocardium
    • 3. structural abnormalities
    • 4. arterial disorders
    • 5. venous disorders
  2. Multiple what usually predispose to heart dysfunction?
    long-term factors
  3. Tx of cardiovascular disorders frequently involves? (5)
    • 1. dietary changes
    • 2. exercise programs
    • 3. cessation of cigarette smoking
    • 4. drug therapy
    • 5. surgery
  4. What is arteriosclerosis? (2)
    • 1. degeneration of small arteries with the loss of elasticity
    • 2. development of thick, hard walls and narrow lumens
  5. In arteriosclerosis, what can cause ischemia and possibly local necrosis?
    The development of thick, hard walls and narrow lumens
  6. In atherosclerosis, large arteries such as the aorta and the coronary and carotid arteries are obstructed by? (2)
    • 1. cholesterol plaques
    • 2. thrombi
  7. Obstructions due to cholesterol plaques and thrombi (atherosclerosis) may be partial or complete, and what are common?
    emboli
  8. (atherosclerosis) What predispose patients to the development of atheromas (4)
    • 1. genetic conditions
    • 2. high cholesterol diet
    • 3. evelvated serum LDL levels
    • 4. elevated BP
  9. What are atheromas? (4)
    • PLAQUES consisting of:
    • 1. lipids
    • 2. cells
    • 3. fibrin
    • 4. cell debris
    • OFTEN attached with thrombi
  10. Angina pectoris attacks are precipitated when?
    The demand for oxygen by the myocardium exceeds the supply
  11. Angina pectoris chest pains are treated with?
    vasodialator nitroglycerin
  12. What is MI?
    myocardial infarction
  13. What does MI result from?
    total obstruction in the coronary artery
  14. Because of the obstruction in the coronary artery, (MI) what does this lead to? (2)
    • 1. tissue necrosis
    • 2. loss of function
  15. Continuing what and changes in the ECG are diagnostic for MI? (2)
    • 1. chest pain
    • 2. hypotension
  16. What are a common cause of death after MI is diagnosed?
    Arrhythmias
  17. What may arrhythmias result from? (4)
    • 1. MI
    • systemic abnormalities:
    • 2. electrolyte balance
    • 3. infection
    • 4. drug toxicity
  18. What do arrhythmias include? (3)
    • 1. abnormally slow/fat heart rates
    • 2. intermitten additional heart contractions (extrasystoles)
    • 3. missed contractions (heart block)
  19. Depending on the cause, congestive heart failure may develop first in? (2)
    • either:
    • 1. left
    • 2. right
    • SIDE OF HEART
  20. Congestive heart failure on either side of the heart causes?
    • 1. systemic backup or congestion
    • 2. pulmonary congestion
  21. (congestive heart failure) cardiac output is reduced causing? (2) stimulating? (1)
    • 1. fatigue
    • 2. weakness
    • 3. reninangiotensin mechanism
  22. (congenitial heart defects) structural abnormalities mayh involve the heart valves such as?(1) the septae, such as? (2)
    • 1. mitral stenosis
    • 2. ventricular septal defect
    • 3. proximal great vessels
  23. What is the primary outcome to congenital heart defects?
    decreased oxygen to all cells in the body
  24. Cyanotic defects such as? (1) refer to congenital defects where? (1)
    • 1. tetralogy of fallot
    • 2. blood leaving the left ventrical consists of mixed oxygenated and unoxygenated blood, thereby delivering only small amounts of oxygen to parts of the body
  25. Rheumatic fever is a systemic inflammation condition caused by?
    an abnormal immune response to certain strains of hemolytic streptococcus
  26. (Rheumatic fever) Inflammation causes scar tissue in the heart valves and myocardium leading to?
    rheumatic heart disease
  27. Infectious endocarditis causes destruction and permanent damage to? (2)
    • 1. heart valves
    • 2. chordae tendineae
  28. (infectious endocarditis) individuals with heart defects or damage should take what before invasive procedures where bacteremia is a threat?
    prophylactic antibacterial drugs
  29. When paricarditis leads to a large volume of fluid in the percardial cavity, what happens?
    • 1. filling of the heart is restricted
    • 2. cardiac output is reduced
  30. Essential or primary hypertension is what type of disease?
    idiopathic
  31. Essential hypertension is marked by persisitent elevation of blood pressure above?
    140/90
  32. What is the high and persistent blood pressure of essential hypertension related to?
    increased systemic vasoconstriction
  33. Is essential hypertension frequently asymptomatic?
    yes
  34. If essential hypertension is not monitored or controlled it may cause permanent damge to the? (3)may lead to? (1)
    • 1. kidneys
    • 2. brain
    • 3. retinas
    • 4. may lead to congestive heart failure
  35. Athersclerosis in the abdominal aorta or illiac arteries may cause ischemia in the feet and legs resulting in? (5)
    • 1. fatigue
    • 2. intermitten claudication
    • 3. sensory impairment
    • 4. ulcers
    • 5. possibly grangrene and amputation
  36. Aortic aneurysms are frequently what until they are very large or a rupture occurs?
    asymptomatic
  37. Varicose veins cause? (3)
    • 1. fatigue
    • 2. swelling
    • 3. possible ulcers in the skin
  38. Pulmonary emboli are a greater risk with?
    phlebothrombosis (usually a silent problem)
  39. Pulmonary emboli are at less risk with thrombophelitis b/c?
    inflammation i more apparent with the disease.
  40. Circulatory shock may result from? (3) why?(1)
    • 1. decreased blood volume
    • 2. impaired cardiac function with reduced output
    • 3. vasodilation
    • 4. b/c it reduces blood flow and available oxygen to microcirculation
  41. What are the compensation mechanisms for circulatory shock?
    • 1. sympathetic nervous system
    • 2. renin mechanism (increased secretion of ADH, aldosterone, and cortisol)
    • 3. increased respirations
  42. Decompensated shock develops (circulatory shock) with complications such as? (2)
    • 1. organ failure
    • 2. infections
  43. Respiratory and/or metabolic acidosis often accompany?
    hypoxia
  44. Respiratory disorders may result from? (4)
    • 1. airway obstructions
    • 2. alveolar damage
    • 3. reduced lung expansion
    • 4. interference with pulmonary blood flow
  45. What are helpful in diagnosing respiratory disorders? (4)
    • 1. charateristic breathing patterns
    • 2. type of cough
    • 3. sputum
    • 4. other manifestations
  46. A cough producing purulent sputum is typical of?
    a bacterial infection
  47. Wheezing indicates?
    airway obstruction
  48. Viruses cause both upper and lower respiratory tract infections, including? (5)
    • 1. common cold
    • 2. laryngotracheobronchitis (croup)
    • 3. influenza
    • 4. bronchiolitis
    • 5. primary atypical pneumonia
  49. What is pneumonia?
    impairs oxygen diffusion when exudate fills the aveoli or intersistial tissue in the lungs.
  50. What is SARS?
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome
  51. SARS is an acute repiratory infection caused by?
    a previously unknown virus
  52. The incidence of tuberculosis is increasing in individuals with?
    low host resistance
  53. With tuberculosis, the amount of drug resistant bacteria?
    has risen
  54. What is the basis of the tubculin (Mantoux) test?
    hypersensitivity reaction developing with primary infection and tubercle formation
  55. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder, affecting the exocrine glands, particularly the?
    mucous glands of the lungs
  56. What organs are also involved in cystic fibrosis? (3)
    • 1. sweat glands
    • 2. liver
    • 3. pancreas
  57. The lungs are a common site for secondary?
    tumors
  58. Aspiration of solids or liquids may cause? (3)
    • 1. inflammation
    • 2. laceration
    • 3. direct obstruction of airways
  59. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs when?
    pharyngeal tissues collapse on expiration during sleep.
  60. The pathophysiology of acute asthma is based on? (3)
    • 1. airway obstruction related to bronchioconstriction
    • 2. inflammation and edema
    • 3. production of excessive, thick mucous
  61. What is a potential complication of acute asthma?
    status asthmaticus
  62. What is COPD?
    emphysema
  63. COPD is characetrized by? (3)
    • loss of elasticity & destruction of:
    • 1. aveolar walls
    • 2. septae
    • 3. capillaries
  64. COPD leads to? (3)
    • 1. overinflation of the lungs
    • 2. hypercapnia
    • 3. hypoxia
  65. chronic bronchitis is associated with constant irritation in the airways and infections that lead to?
    fibrosis
  66. What is a common complication of chronic bronchitis?
    Cor pulmonale
  67. Restrictive disorders include those with chest wall dysfunction, such as? (2)
    • 1. kyphosis
    • 2. respiratory muscle paralysis
  68. Restrictive disorders also are disorders causing pulmonary fibrosis and loss of compliance such as?
    occupational pneumoconioses (silicosis)
  69. Pulmonary edema refers to? (2)
    • increased fluid in the aveoli reducing:
    • 1. oxygen diffusion
    • 2. lung expansion
  70. Most pulmonary emboli arise from?
    thrombi in leg veins.
  71. Moderate sized emboli cause?
    respiratory impairment
  72. Large emboli cause?
    cardiovascular impairment
  73. Fat emboli cause?
    ARDS
  74. What is ARDS?
    adult respiratory distress syndrome
  75. Atelectasis may affect all/part of the lung and causes of it include? (4)
    • 1. airway obstruction
    • 2. decreased ventilation
    • 3. compression of the lung
    • 4. increased surface tension in the aveoli
  76. A large open pneumothorax impairs what (2) due to what? (1)
    • 1. ventilation
    • 2. circulation
    • 3. mediastinal flutter
  77. Flail chast injury causes?
    • 1. paradoxic motion
    • decreases oxygen concentration in:
    • 2. alveolar air
    • 3. the venous return
  78. What causes a baby to have IRDS?
    prematurity
  79. SARS occurs in people with what?
    • 1. ischemia of lungs
    • 2. inhalation of toxic materials
  80. Respiratory distress syndrome makes what reduced because of fluid in the lungs? (2)
    • 1. lung expansion
    • 2. oxygen diffusion impaired
  81. What is acute respiratory failure? (3)
    • 1. deficit of oxygen
    • 2. increase of carbon monoxide
    • 3. or combo of both
  82. Acute respiratory failure may occur with? (3)
    • 1. acute chronic conditions (tension pneumothroax)
    • 2. chronic disorders (emphysema)
    • 3. chronic diseases complicated by a secondary acute problem (cystic fibrosis plus pneumonia)

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