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What is the difference b/w glucogenic and ketogenic AA?
- Glucogenic: does not use OAA and leads to an increase in OAA for more glucose production
- Ketogenic: utilizes OAA and cannot be used in the liver for glucose production
What types of AA are Valine, Isoleucine, Leucine and Lysine?
- Valine = gluco.
- Isoleucine = Gluc./Keto.
- Leucine/Lysine = Keto.
- *All BCAA
What are the three triggers for gluconeogensis in the liver?
Which is less acidifying: plant or animal protein?
Plant (less methionine and cysteine)
Can BCAA be made in the liver?
No (only in peripheral tissue)
What are the enzymes used for transaminase and oxidation of BCAA?
- BCAA Aminotransferase
- BCKD (works like PDHC, Transketolase, etc...)
What is the fate of Ammonia created from BCAA transamination and oxidation?
- Alanine (Alanine cycle)
- Glutamine (kidney and SI)
Why is Alanine important in the liver?
It is a precursor for Gluconeogenesis since it can be broken down by ALT to form pyruvate and then pyruvate to OAA through pyruvate carboxylase
Where is glutamine sent after BCAA oxidation?
kidney and SI
Why is it good for the kidney and SI to take up ammonia?
They can avoid ammonia toxicity through buffers and excretion
What is the main factor of Maple Syrup disease?
- Lack of BCKD
- Buildup of BCAA and keto acid derivatives
When is AA catabolism heightened?
- when insulin is low
- state of phosphorylation
- high glucagon
- high protein intake = more AA
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