genetics

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Author:
ditzybutterfly
ID:
44082
Filename:
genetics
Updated:
2010-10-21 20:32:54
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genetics vocab
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Genetics vocab and need to knows
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    1. Transmission Genetics (Mendelian or Classical)
      1. Principles of Genetics
        1. => How traits are passes down from parent ->
        2. offspring
        3. **Focus is on the individual

    1. Population Genetics
      1. *Explores the genetic composition of the GROUP
      2. ->how it changes & evolves over time
      3. *Populations are Dynamic structures = composition changes in response to environment*climate*predation*selective mating*geography´╗┐
        *Population genetics examines what we know as the GENE POOL
        Ex: how prevalent is a particular gene in a population? = gene frequency

    1. Molecular
      Genetics
      1. Concerned with the molecular structure & function of
      2. genes in the cell
      3. How genes are maintained & transmitted at the cellular level
          From 1 cell to the next cell upon division
        1. Focus on the cellular processes of replication, transcription & translation
  1. ->mechanistic approach to understanding gene transmission
  • Pangenesis
      1. Each different cell type in the body carried specific particles of information = (gemmules) that provided the instructions for how that cell functions At the time of conception,
      2. the gemmules from all over the body would localize to the reproductive tissue then the info is transferred to the embryo upon fertilization (egg & sperm join)
  • Preformationism
        1. - little preformed beings
          Inside the egg or sperm there exists a miniature adult
        1. Means that all traits would come from only 1 parent
        2. Ovist - if believed preformed individual arose from the egg
        3. Spermist - if you believed the preformed individual arose from the sperm
        4. Does not support the observation that we inherit traits from both parents


    1. Inheritance of acquired traits
      1. Traits that an individual develops throughout their life can now be inherited/passed down to offspring
      2. Cut off a mouses tail to make it shorter to make offspring's tail shorter - didn't work
  • Blending Theory
    • -offspring are a blend or mixture of both parental traits that creates a new trait in the offspring
    • - results in dilution of trait & homogeneity of the population
  • Cell Theory
    • -Schleident & Schwann 1839
    • -cells are the smallest unit of life
    • -all living things are made up of cells
    • -all cells come from pre-existing cells (applies to inheritance)
  • Germplasm Theory
    • -Germ cells (egg & sperm) like all cells in the body carry a complete set of the entire genetic material of that organism
    • -gametes from the male & female join together at fertilization/reproduction
    • -one inherits from both parents
    • -very similar to pangenesis
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF A CELL
    • - have semi-permeable, lipid bilayer membrane that encloses the cellular contents & allows the transfer of nutrients into the cell & transport of waste out of the cell
    • - cytoplasm that is the site of cellular metabolism & biochemistry
    • - ribosomes that are the cellular machinery for making proteins
    • - all cells store their genetic info in the form of DNA
    • (exception - some acellular organisms (viruses) store their genetic info as RNA)
  • 3 MAJOR SUB DISCIPLINES OF GENETICS
    • -Transmission Genetics (Mendelian/Classical)
    • -Population Genetics
    • -Molecular Genetics
  • HEREDITY
    -the transmission of traits/characteristics from 1 generation to the next
  • THEORIES PROPOSED BASED ON HEREDITY OBSERVATIONS
    • -Pangenesis
    • -Preformationsim
    • -Inheritance of acquired traits
    • - Blending theory
    • -Germoplasm Theory
  • 2 MAIN CLASSIFICATIONS OF CELLS
    • -eukaryotes (true nucleus)
    • -prokaryotes (no nucleus)
  • EUKARYOTES
    • -unicellular or multicellular
    • -structurally complex
    • ~10-100um in diameter
    • ~cell is compartmentalized
    • ~nucleus (genetic material is physically separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane)
    • -6000-30000 genes
    • -higher order/level of DNA packaging for DNA to fit in the cell that is done with histones
    • -metabolically simple - only metabolizes Carbon
  • PROKARYOTES
    • -unicellular
    • -structurally simple
    • ~0.1-10um
    • ~no true nucleus
    • ~ genetic material is not bound by a membrane instead is completed as a nucleoid structure
    • -1500-5000 genes
    • -no histone proteins & minimal packaging of the DNA
    • -metabolically complex - metabolizes C, N, S, Fe, P, & O
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