Microbiology Unit 4

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Microbiology Unit 4
2010-10-26 19:03:45
Chapter twenty two

Immunity & Serology
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  1. The different kinds of Immunity
    • Acquired
    • Innate (born with)
  2. Innate
    • These are immunity that we are born with
    • Species Immunity - common to all members of a species
    • Individual Immunity - can inherit immunity
    • Racial Immunity - some races are more immune to some disease
  3. Acquired
    • These are immunity that we acquire...
    • naturally - exposure to infectious antigen provides immunity to that disease for life
    • artificially - exposure via vaccination or immunization
  4. Artificial
    Acquired immunity
    • provides immunity for several years or life
    • solution of the antigen is either attenuated or dead organism and is a vaccine
  5. attenuated vaccine
    • is a live but weakened organism used for vaccine
    • longer lasting immunity
    • MMR and Varicella Zoster
  6. Killed organism
    • shorter term immunity therefore booster shot is required periodically
    • Pertussis
  7. Toxoid
    • resembling a toxin; it is a solution of an inactivated toxin
    • gives us antibody to the toxin formed
    • is a killed organism which is a toxin produced by a specific microorganism
    • altered by heat or chemical
    • diphtheria and tetanus
  8. Vaccines
    • should be given before exposure to allow microorganism to produce antibodies
    • except.. rabies and small pox which can be given afterwards
  9. Common Vaccines given to children
    • MMR
    • DPT (Diptheria toxoid, acellular pertussis antigen, tetanus toxoid)
    • Polio
    • Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type b)
    • Varicella
    • Prevnar (Strep pneumoniae)
    • Hepatitis A
    • Rotarix
  10. Recommended vaccines for adults
    • Influenzae
    • Pneumovax for the elderly
    • Meningococcal vaccine for military or college dorms
    • Hepatitis A for travelers
    • Hepatitis B for Healthcare workers and plumbers
    • Td every 10 years
    • Zostavax for shingles
  11. Types of Vaccine
    • 1st generation - whole organism such MMR and Varicella
    • 2nd generation - parts of the organism such ans pneumovax and Hib
    • 3rd generation - genetically engineered such as Hep B and DNA vaccine
  12. Herd immunity
    90% if the population should have immunity
  13. Passive Immunity
    • ready-made antibodies are introduced into the body
    • acquired by receiving antibodies from someone else
    • can be naturally or artificially acquired
  14. naturally acquired antibodies
    • includes antibodies made by the mother's immune system which are transferred to the offspring
    • can be passed to fetus through the placenta and lasts 6 months (this is IgG)
    • antibodies found in colostrum also provide immunity (this is IgA)
  15. Artificially acquired
    • these are ready made antibodies made by other hosts that are introduced into the new host
    • hyperimmune globulin can be manufactored by introducing a particular antigen into an animal (such as a horse) and collect serum rich in antibodies
    • may also be given to people exposed to Hepatitis A
    • recommend after expected rabies exposure
    • antitoxins which are antibodies against specific toxins such as botulism, diptheria and tetanus
  16. Serum sickness
    it is the allergic reaction against passive immunization especially if the serum comes from a horse