AP week 3

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felizdiaz
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44164
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AP week 3
Updated:
2010-10-27 08:57:22
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NEURO
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  1. ORDER OF MENINGES
    • OUT TO IN
    • DURA MATER- ARACHNOID-PIA MATER
  2. Dermatomes key points
    • C6-OK SIGN
    • T4 NIPPLES
    • T10 UMBILICUS
    • L1 INGUINAL LIGAMENT
    • L3 KNEE
    • S1 FOOT
    • S4 AND 5 ANUS
  3. CSF
    • MADE BY CHAROID PLEXUSES IN VENTRICLES
    • ABSORBED IN ARACHNOID VILLA
    • OCCUPIES THE SUBARACHNIOD SPACE
    • 125 TO 150 ML
  4. BLOOD SUPPLY OF BRAIN
    • 800 TO 1000 ML/MIN WITH 60-100ML AT ONE TIME
    • REGULATED BY CO2
    • MAIN SUPPLIES
    • 2 INTERNAL CAROTID 80%
    • MIDDLE CEREBAL ART (UPPER BODY)
    • ANTERIOR CEREBAL (LOWER BODY)
    • 2 VERTEBRAL ART 20%
    • COMBINED TO MAKE THE BASILAR ARTERY
    • THEN FORM THE COMMUNICATION ART (CIRCLE OF WILLIES)
    • (VISUAL LOSS AND DIZZNIESS)
  5. ASTROCYTES
    • SORROUND THE BLOOD VESSELS IN THE BRAIN (BBB)
    • FILL IN THE SPACE BETWEEN NEURONS
  6. OLIGODENDROLIA
    MAKE MYELIN IN CNS
  7. MICROGLIA
    • LIKE WBC
    • REMOVE DEBRIS
  8. EXCITATORY NT
    • NE
    • ACH
    • SUB P
    • GLUTAMATE
  9. INHIBITORY NT
    • GABA
    • DOPAMINE
    • SERATONIN
    • ENDORPHINS
    • ENCEPHALINS
  10. DEPOLARIZING DRUGS
    • EX SUCCS
    • BIND TO ACH RECPTORS AND KEEP THE MEMBRANE DEPOLARIZED
    • ACH-ERASE (BRAKE DOWN ENZYME) DOES NOT WORK
  11. NONDEPOLARIZAING BLOCKING MED
    • ARE COMPETITIVE ACH ANTAGONIST THAT COMPETE AT ACH RECEPTORS SITE BUT ONCE ON DON'T CAUSE DEPOLARIZATION
    • ACH CAN REVERSE
  12. BASAL GANGLIA
    • INTERCONNECTS WITH SPINE, THALAMUS, PREMOTOR CORTEX, RED NUCLEUS, RECTICULAR FORMATION
    • ABILITY OF FINE MOTOR OTHER WISE NOT UNDERSTOOD
    • MODULATION OF INFO COMING IN (EX YOUR SHIRT IS ON BUT YOU DON'T FEEL IT ALL THE TIME)
  13. LIMBIC SYSTEM
    • PART OF BASAL GANLIA
    • -BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES (EMOTION)
    • -SMELL
    • -CONSOLIDATION OF MEMORY (SHORT TO LONG TERM)
  14. MIDBRAIN
    • CN 1,2,3,4
    • CORPORA QUADRIGEMIA
    • SUPERIOR COLLICUI- VOL + INVOL VISUAL MOVEMENT
    • INFERIOR - MOVEMENT OF HEAD TO HEAR

    • TEGMENTUM
    • RED NUCLEUS- FINE MOTOR OUT (WITH CEREBULLUM)
    • SUBSTANTIA NIGRA- MAKE DOPAMINE
    • PEDUNCLES- CORTICOSPINAL TRACTS
  15. PONS
    • CN 5,6,7,8
    • INFO FROM CEREBELLUM TO BRAIN STEM
    • BREATH (NOT ONLY CENTER)
  16. MEDULLA OBLONGATA
    • CN9,10,11,12
    • MOST DIFFICULT TO SUPRESS
    • HAS VAGUS NERVE (AND ALL ITS FX)
  17. RETICULAR FORMATION
    • NETWORK OF CONNECTED NUCLEI THAT REGULATE VITAL REFLEXES (HEART LUNGS)
    • WAKEFULLNESS

    YOU SEE A BEAR. RT CAUSES YOU HR, BP, CO, RR TO INCREASE ALL BEFORE YOU KNOW ABOUT RUNNING
  18. CEREBELLUM
    • CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS MUSCLE SYNERGY
    • IPSILALATERAL CONTROL OF BODY
    • ROUTINE MOVEMENT (OVER OVER AND OVER AGAIN)
  19. # OF SPINAL NERVES
    • 8 CERIVCAL
    • 12 THORACIC
    • 5 LUMBAR
    • 5 SACRAL
    • 1 COCCYGEAL
  20. HYPER CA
    • DT INCREASE PTH AND VIT D, BONE MET
    • EFFECTS: DECREASE NEUROMUS EXCITABLITY, K STONES, CONSTIPATION, INCREASE BLOCKAGE OF NA INTO CELL TO CELL BECOME REFACTORY TO DEPOLE
  21. HYPO CA
    • DT: DECREASE ABSORPTION AND VIT D AND PTH, INCREASE CALCHONIN, BLOOD TRANFUSION
    • EFFECTS: DECREASE BLOCK OF NA INTO CELL THUS INCREASE NEURONS EXCITABILTY, PROLONG QT, DECREASE BP AND CONTRACTILITY
    • LOOK AT IONIZED CA
  22. HYPER K
    DT: INCREASE INTAKE, DECREASE EXCRETION, SHIFT FROM ICF TO ECF (DKA)

    EFFECTS: CELL CANT REPOLARIZE, WEAKNESS, DECREASED M TONE, FLACID, PEAK T WAVE, LONG PR AND DECREASED ST
  23. HYPO K
    DT LESS INTAKE, INCREASE UPTAKE TO CELL, LOSS OF K ABX

    EFFECTS: CRAMPS, SLIGHT INCREASE TO P WAVE, U WAVE, SHALLOW T
  24. HYPO PHOS
    ST LOW ABSORPTION, LOW VIT D, UP IN OUTPUT, HIGH PTH, RESP. ALKALOSIS,

    • EFFECTS: OSTEMALACIA, LOW 2-3 DPG, CHANGE TO LEUKOLYTES
    • HI CA LOW PHOS
  25. CBF VS FUNCTION
    • NORMAL CBF 45-50 ML/100G/MIN
    • NORMAL FX 20-45
    • LOW EEG 20
    • SSEP FAIL 15
    • 0 FX (SURVIVAL) 6-20
    • CELL DEATH LESS THAN 6
  26. HYPO MAG
    DT MALNUT, ETOH, MALABSORP, M. ACIDOSIS, DIURETICS, RENAL DYSFUNTION

    EFFECTS: HI CA, LOW K, NEUROMUSC IRRITABILITY, TENTANY, CONVULSIONS, HI REFLEXES
  27. HYPER MAG
    • DT NONE
    • EFFECTS: LOW SKELETOL MUSCLE, LOW BP, LOW RR, LETHARGY, LOW HR AND LOW REFLEXES
  28. ENODONEURIUM
    DELICATE LAYER OF CONNECTIVE TISSURE AROUND EACH AXON
  29. NEURILEMMA
    THIN MEMBRANE BETWEEN THE MYELIN SHEATH AND THE ENDONURIUM
  30. MYELIN
    • FORMED IN 1ST 6 MONTHS OF LIFE
    • FAT THAT INSULATINS IMPULSES
    • FORMED AND MAINTAINED BY SCHWANN CELLS
  31. HYPOTHALAMUS HELP CONTROL
    • ANS
    • BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS (SMELL STEAK=INCREASE SALIVA)
    • VISCERAL AND SOMATIC RESPONSES
    • AFFECTUAL RESPONSE
    • SNS AND PNS ACTIVITY
    • FEEDING RESPONSE
    • PHYSICAL EXPRESSION OF EMOTION
    • SEXUAL BEHAVIOR
    • PLEASURE/PUNISHMENT CENTER
    • LEVEL OF AROUSAL OR WAKEFULNESS
  32. UPPER MOTOR NEURON LOSS
    • SPASTIC PARALYSIS (HAVE ARCH REFLEX)
    • NO SIG MUSCLE ATROPHY
    • NO FIBRILL
    • HYPERREFLIXIA
    • + BABKISKI MAY BE PRESENT
  33. LOWER NM
    • FLACCID
    • ATROPHY
    • FIBRILL PRESENT
    • HYPOREFLEXIA
    • NO BABINSKI
  34. ICP
    • 5-15 MMHG
    • WHAT INCREASES
    • BRAIN- EDEMA AND MASS LESIONS (TRUMORS)
    • HEMORRAGE
    • CHF- LOW ABSORPTION, UP PRODICTON, BLOCKAGE
    • BLOOD
  35. HYPOTHALAMUS
    • ANTERIOR PITUITARY (PNS)
    • ACTH
    • THROTROPHIC HORMONE
    • SOMATIOTROPHIC HORMONE
    • FSH
    • LH

    • POSTERIOR PITUITARY (SNS)
    • ADH
    • OXYTOCIN
  36. PLEXI
    NERVES THAT COME TOGETHER THAT RUN ALONG AN ART
  37. NERVES OF PNS
    • ANTIERIOR PIT
    • CN1-12 (VAGAS 10 IS MOST IMPORTANT)
    • SACRAL NERVES
  38. NERVES OF SNS
    • POSTERIOR PIT
    • T1-L2
  39. WALLERIAN DEGENERATION
    • OCCURS DISTAL TO CUT
    • SWELLING
    • HYPERTROPHY OF NERUOFILAMENT
    • MYELIN SHEATHS SHRINKS
    • AXON DEGENERATES/DISAPPEARS

    • PROXIMAL TO CUT
    • SWELLING AND DESPERSAL OF NISSL
    • INCREASE OF CELL META, PROTEIN SYN, AND MITOCHONDRIAL ACTIVITY
    • NEW TERMINAL SPROUTS
    • ONLY OCCURS IN MYLINATED AXONS (SO MOSTLY IN PNS)
    • 0.2 MM/DAY

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