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What is psychology?
Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and the factors that influence it.
Factors of Psychology.
Biological, environmental and psychological
Behaviour has no basic definition, when studying psychology behaviour can be many things.
- the quest for knowledge purely for it's own sake.
- Describes how people behave and identifies factors that influence a type of behaviour in a lab or real world setting.
Take findings from basic research and design a study to solve practical problems
What was robbers cave?
- -A basic research study
- - Competition between groups caused conflict
- - Reduced this by forcing cooperation
What applied research did Robbers Cave spur?
- Jigsaw program: multicultural school.. required students to cooperate to achieve success
- prejudice was decreased through cooperation
4 Goals of Psychology
- Predict how certain people and animals behave under certain conditions
- Control behaviour through knowledge and control its causes to enhance human welfare.
- Understand and explain the causes of behaviour
- Describe how people have animals behave
What is the importance of Perspectives?
- They are vantage points for analyzing behaviour and its biological, psychological and environmental causes.
- There are six different perspectives.
Name the six perspectives:
Biological, cognitive, psycho-dynamic, behavioural, humanistic, sociocultural.
- focuses on the physical side of human nature. BRAIN!Mind body dualism vs monism
What did the EEG scan let us know? how did it work?
- That all areas of the brain are responsible for different functions.
- The EEG shows electrical activity from large areas of the brain through electrodes attached to the scalp.
How did Darwin and Mendel contribute to the biological perspective?
- Darwin introduced the idea of evolution. Survival of the fittest
- Mendel discovered genetic transmission.
- Evolutionary psychologists focus on the role of evolution in the development of behaviour and mental mechanisms.
stimulates development of brain mechanisms
complex social behaviours are built into species as products of evolution
the study of how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factors
views humans as information processors an problem solvers whose actions are governed by thought and planning
structure of mind by breaking down into basic compenents, thought to be sensations
influenced by Darwin's evolutionary theory and has emphasis on how mind processes information and direct behaviour which is adaptive behaviour
elements of experiences are organized into wholes, opposite of structuralism.
AHA! sudden perception of a useful relationship or solution
studies cognitive development in children
Ellis and Beck
tried to understand how mental distortion patterns create emotional problems
searches for the causes of behaviour within the workings of our personalities, emphasizes the role of unconscious processes and unresolved conflicts from the past
Freud came up with what theory?
- Psychoanalysis: internal unconscious psychological forces.
- Hysteria and hypnosis. Repression.
focuses on the roles of the external environment in shaping our actions
What are the origins of behavioural perspective?
- British empiricalism held that all ideas and knowledge are gained empirically (through the senses)
- Seeing was believing.
- emphasizes environmental control of behaviour through learning, emerged as an outspoken alternative to the cognitive and psycho-dynamic perspectives.
- A person does not act upon the world, the world acts upon him.
a bridge between the 2 perspecives.. the environment affects our behaviour by giving us the information we need the behave effectively.
- we all are trying to reach our individual potential,
- We all want to live forever but know we are going to die.
- Anxiety called existential terror.
focuses on the manner in which culture is transmitted to its members and on the similarities and differences that occur among people from diverse cultures.
Define: culture and norm
- Culture is the values, beliefs and traditions shared by a large group
- Norms are rules that specify what is acceptable.
Western civilization: we care about our own personal goals
Eastern: the groups goal matters most. One big defined goal.