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nutrients from Grains
- Fiber, Iron, B vitamins,
- niacin, vitamin E, phosphorous, magnesium, zinc
nutrients from vegetables
Vit C, A, E, K Potassium, Folate, Fiber
nutrients from fruit
Potassium, Dietary Fiber, Folate, Vit C
nutrients from milk
Calcium, Potassium, Vitamin D, zinc, magnesium, phosphate, protein
nutrients from beans and meats
Fiber, minerals (like iron, magnesium, and selenium)
3 things found on food labels
Calories, serving size, Calories from fat, Total Fat, trans fat, Cholesterol, Sodium, Total Carbohydrates, Protein, %DV Vitamins, ingredients
what is unit price
- The "unit price"
- tells you the cost per pound, unit of weight or volume of a food package.
- (Finding the best deal)
- 10 lbs for $1.50 vs 25 lbs at $3.50
- 1.50/10=$0.15; 3.50/25=$0.14; 25 lbs at $3.50 is cheaper
advantage/disadvantage of shopping at a big box store
Advantage: Variety of merchandise, bulk purchasing power
Disadvantage: Time consuming and not as much meat selection
What is an advantage/disadvantage to grocery shopping at a grocery store?
- The food is sometimes fresher, store brands, preferred shopper discounts
- It’s not a one-stop shop (time)
What is an advantage/disadvantage to grocery shopping at a warehouse club?
Unit price is cheaper
- membership required, limited store brands, no coupon use, big quantities, no
- one to help you out to your car, often can’t pay with credit card
Give 3 tips for wise grocery shopping.
Buy a bulk amount of things on sale (if they keep)use couponsbuy larger amounts/cheaper unit price itemsMake a listeat first
What areas of the grocery store have high mark-ups?
The front of the store, the end of the isles, eye level shelves, at the checkout stand, dump bins
What is a loss leader?
company sells item for less than it cost them to purchase it.
What things would you take into consideration when evaluating a meal?
- - variety of color
- - Texture
- - Size and shape
- - Flavor
- - Temperature
- - Heavy/light (density)
- - Nutritional variety
- - Preparation method
- - Cost/convenience
What is an ingredient that is measured by scooping and leveling?
Baking Powder and soda
Name an ingredient that is measured by spooning and leveling.
What can happen if you don’t plan a time schedule for cooking?
- You could have hot food cold, and cold food warm. or something wont be finished
- in time.
What is the danger zone?
between 40 F and 140 F
How long can food be left out of the refrigerator?
How long is our food supply cart allowed to be out of the refrigerator in lab?
When might you buy packaged foods instead of preparing the food?
when you are short on time, or don’t feel like cooking :)
What packaged item is usually actually cheaper than making from scratch?
Tell me a job of the manager in lab.
- Complete lab sheet, time line and recipes; major cooking; unit duty; get clean
Tell me one job of the assistant manager in lab.
get supplies from table; help cook; sweep floor; dry and put away dishes
Give me one job of the aide in lab.
help cook; set table; check garbage; wash dishes; wipe counters
Name one use for a metal spatula.
A metal spatula is for frosting cakes and leveling off ingredients.
What is a common cause of salmonella?
- Not cooking foods (such as chicken) to at least 140 degrees.
- -eggs, poultry
What is a common cause of e.Coli?
- raw ground beef and unpastuerized milk
- Eating undercooked meat, raw (unpasteurized) milk, unpasteurized juices, and
- contaminated leafy greens
- -ground meat=fecal/oral transfer
What is a common cause of botulism?
- Not canning foods properly; canned foods with bulges or dents; spoiled food;
- honey and contaminated fish
How do microwave ovens work?
heated by radiation, works b/c of electrical nature of H2O molecules in food
What is standing time?
Letting food sit for a time interval without touching it.
Name 2 microwave safe materials.
Glass, some plastics, ceramic
Name 2 materials that shouldn’t go in a microwave.
aluminum foil; metal, wood
How does convection heat work?
the air circulates so it cuts cook time (by a fan in the back)
How does radiation heat work?
Transfers energy from source directly to food being heated.
How does conduction heat work?
Heat transferred from metal coil to metal pan heating the food.
What equipment do you need to can meat?
What precautions do you need to take when canning jam?
Seal correctly to avoid botulism, and store in the right temperature range.
List the order in which dishes are properly washed.
- 1. clean as you go
- 2. prepare dishes
- 3. prepare sink
- 4. wash lightest soiled items first
- 5.wash plates, silverware, bowls
- 6. wash pans and heavily soiled items
- 7.dry dishes
Why can sponges be a breeding ground for bacteria?
a sponge is used multiple times before throwing away. never really “clean”
Why can’t you use any oil for frying?
Different oils have different smoke points. Oils with low smoke points are not good for frying. Salad oils are generally the best for frying (with the exception of olive oil).
What is a good fat for biscuits?
Can you use any type of margarine for baking? Why or why not?
No, tub margarine is not good for baking, turns liquid at room temperature.
In what vegetable category does cauliflower belong?
The book classifies it in the leaves/stems group with broccoli.
Why is it important to cook vegetables in little water and/or for short time periods?
brightens the color; more flavor, less nutrient loss
Give a couple of guidelines for selecting fresh fruits and vegetables.
- Deep rich colors, not withered, not too big or too small, compare weight,
- hollow sounding melons, plump corn kernels
Give a guideline for cooking with dairy products.
low temperatures and cooking time should be as short as possible
What could you use as a substitution for oil in a recipe?
Which cholesterol is the good one?
How can you reduce bad cholesterol?
- eat polyunsaturated fats (fish, walnuts, omega-3 eggs) or abstain from meat
Which form of vegetarianism is the most restrictive?
Why do some people choose to be vegetarian?
health reasons, moral reasons, religious reasons
- a protein
- source that contains all eight (i think there might be 9)(There are 8 for
- us, but for growing children and infants there are 10) essential amino acids in
- the sufficient proportions to support normal biological functions.
- meat; beef, beans with rice, peanut butter with bread - eggs!
proteins that do not have all the essential amino acids, or not in right proportion... proteins from vegetables- carrot, peanut butter, beans, rice, bread
Name an appropriate method for preparing a less tender cut of meat.
Braising. Stewing (moist heat), pressure cookier
What affects tenderness of meat?
- Cooking methods, the amount of exercise done by that cut of meat (the less
- exercise, the more tender), age (between 10 and 29 days the meat will become
- increasingly tender due to enzymes on the various proteins.
What is butter made of?
cream from the fat off the top of milk
What is hydrogenation?
The process to make liquid fats turn to solid fats. Adding hydrogen atoms, therefore decreasing the number of double bonds. (if not made fully hydrogenated can give trans fats)
What is pasteurization?
pasteurization: heat treatment to kill disease-producing microorganisms in
heat treament to kill disease-producing microorganisms in milk
What is homogenization?
Heating process in which the cream that used to be on the top of the milk is mixed in with and distributed evenly throughout the milk.
What fat will give you a firmer cookie? Margarine, shortening or butter?
Shortening will give you a firmer cookie