Card Set Information
groups of cells with a common structure and function
Four main catagories of tissue:
1. epithelial tissue
2. connective tissue
3. nervous tissue
4. muscle tissue
Epithelia are classified by:
number of cell layers
shape of the cells
single layer of cells
multiple layers of cells
cube shape (like dice)
like bricks on end
flat like floor tiles
Epithelial tissue funtion:
a barrier protecting against mechanical injury, invasive microorganisms, and fluid loss.
A dense mat of extracellular matrix that is attached to cells at the base of epithelium.
Connective tissue Structure:
connective tissues have a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix.
Connective Tissue Function:
To bind and support other tissues.
Three kinds of connective tissue fibers:
made of collagen. Are non-elastic and do not tear easily when pulled lengthwise.
are long threads of elastin. Provide a rubbery quality.
are very thin and branched. Composed of collagen and continuous with collagenous fibers, they form tightly woven fabric that joins connective tissue to adjacent tissues.
Loose Connective tissue:
binds epithelia to underlying tissues and functions as packing material, holding organs in place.
Has all 3 fiber types
secrete the protein ingredients of the extracellular fibers
ameoboid cells that roam through fibers engulfing bacteria and debri of dead cells
a specialized form of loose connective that stores fat
Adipose tissue funciton:
pads and insulates the body and stores fuel as fat molecules
Fibrous connective tissue:
dense, due to its large number of collagenous fibers.
Fibrous connective tissue that attces muscle to bone:
Fibrous connective tissue that attches bone to bone
many collagenous fibers embedded in a rubbery matrix made of
secrete collagen and chondroitin sulfate.
extracellular matrix consisting of water, salts, and dissolved proteins
red blood cell function:
white blood cell function:
defense against invaders
aid in blood clotting
senses stimuli and transmits signals
Three types of muscle tissue:
the ability to maintain physiologically favorable internal environments.
Three ways in which an organism maintains homeostasis:
maintaining body temperature within a tolerable range
regulating solute balance and the gain and loss of water.
the removal of nitrogen-containing waste products of metabolism.
uses mechanisms of homeostasis to moderate internal change in the face of external fluctuations.
allows its own internal conditions to alter with the environment.
Four physical processes of heat exchange
the direct transfer of thermal motion between molecules in direct contact with each other.
the transfer of heat by the movement of iar or liquid past a surface.
the emission of electromagnetic waves by all objects warmer than absolute zero.
the removal of heat from the surface of a liquid that is losing some of its molecules as gas.
Adaptations that help animals thermoregulate:
vasodilation (warm the skin = heat loss)
vasoconstriction (keep warm blood inside)
Countercurrent heat exchange ( lose heat to environment)
cooling by evaporative heat loss
behavioral repsonses ( move to cooler/ warmer area)
increase metabolic activity within mitochondria, resulting in heat production.
hormone produced by adipose cells, regulates fat storage and use.
A high leptin level causes:
causes the brain to depress appetite and to increase muscular activity and body-heat production
Pepsinogen is secreted by:
Hydrochloric acid is secreted by:
Pepsinogen is converted to pepsin by:
what is the longest section of the alimentary canal?
the small intestine
most breakdown of food and absorption of nutrients to blood occurs in:
the small intestine
function of bile salts:
act as detergents and aid in the digestion and absorption of fats.
protein-disgesting enzyme secreted by the intestinal epithelium.
Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase are secreted in inactive form by:
an enzyme that hydrolyzes fat molecules into glycerol, fatty acids, and glycerides.
Most digestion occurs in:
main funtions of jejunum and ileum:
absorption of nutrients and water.
what has first access on absorbed sugars and and amino acids?
Hepatic portal vessel:
conveys nutrients from capillaries and veins to liver
3 types of transport systems:
Open circulatory system
Closed circulatory system
material exchange through diffusion. ( Jellyfish)
Open circulatory system:
no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid (hemolymph). Hemolymph is pumped into sinuses surrounding organs. (insects, arthrppods)
Closed circulatory system:
blood is confined to vessels, distinct from interstitial fluid. large vessels branch into smaller ones cursing through organs. (eartworms, vertebrates)
chambers that recieve blood returning to heart.
chambers that pump blood out of heart.
carry blood away from heart. only oxygenated when leaving the left ventricle.