EXAM 3

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Anonymous
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44268
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EXAM 3
Updated:
2010-10-22 19:34:17
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tissues cells
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becky a&p 1
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  1. Covering/Lining Epithelium
    • SKIN
    • communicates w/ outside
    • digestive
    • respiratory
    • urinary
    • reproductive
    • stays internal
    • chest cavity
    • abdominal cavity
    • endothelium of heart and blood vessels
  2. Glandular Epithelium
    • often lines in clusters deep to covering/lining epithelium
    • secretes onto surfaces, ducts and into blood
  3. Functions of Epithelium
    • protection
    • secretion
    • absorbtion
    • filtration
    • sensation
    • specialized secretion
  4. Characteristic of Epithelium
    • specialized contacts with other cell
    • polarity(different ends do different things)
    • avascular(no blood supply)
    • regeneration(high rate of cell division)
    • cellularity(lots of cells in close contact)
    • little cellular material
  5. Basal Lamina
    basement membrane
  6. Lamida Lucida
    • glycoprotiens/fine protein filiments
    • barrier
  7. Lamina Densa
    • bundle of coarse protein fibers
    • gives basal lamina strength
  8. Classification of ET
    • SHAPE
    • squamous
    • cuboidal
    • columnar
    • LAYERING
    • simple
    • stratified
  9. Mesothelium
    • lines ventral body cavities
    • simple squamous
    • produces erous membrane
  10. Endothelium
    lines blood vessels
  11. Simple Squamous
    • single layer
    • flat cells
    • lines air sacs, cappilaries, lymph vessels, ventral cavity covering
    • diffusion SUBSTANCES PASS EASILY
    • reduces friction
    • absorption/secretion
  12. Simple Cuboidal
    • single layer
    • cube shaped
    • large centrally located nucleous
    • lines kidney tubules and ducts of glands
    • absorption/secretion
  13. Simple Columnar
    • single layer
    • tall basally located nucleous
    • goblet cells
    • MICROVILLI
    • lines intestines
    • protection/absorption/secretion
  14. Pseudostratified Columnar
    • single layer
    • tall cells
    • scattered nuclei
    • CILLA
    • goblet cells
    • lines trachea and fallopian tubes
    • protection/secretion
  15. Stratified Squamous
    • many layers
    • flat cells
    • KERITENIZED=epidermous
    • NON-KERITENIZED=vagina, epidermous,mouth
    • protection
  16. Transitional Epithelium
    • several layers
    • cells change shape under pressure
    • lines urinary bladder and ureters
    • DISTENSIBILITY=ability to stretch
  17. Tight Junctions
    closes spaces between cells so that substances through cells instead of around them
  18. Gap Junctions
    allows rapid passage of small molecules/ions from one cell to the next
  19. Desmosomes
    bind cells tightly together like velcro
  20. Endocrine Glands
    • DUCTLESS
    • secretes into blood
  21. Exocrine Glands
    • secretes into a duct
    • secretes on to a surface
    • UNICELLULAR=composed of one cell(ex. goblet)
    • MULTICELLULAR=composed of many cells(ex. sweat,sebaceous and salvitory glands)
  22. Merocrine Secretions
    • release product from vesicle through exocytosis
    • watery sweat
  23. Apocrine Secreations
    • loss of cytoplasm containing secretion
    • apical(free) surface of cytoplasm is shed
    • thick underarm sweat
  24. Holocrine Secreations
    • entire cell is packed with secreation then burst
    • destroys cell
    • sebaceous gland associated with hair
  25. Membrane
    • is an ORGAN
    • combination of epithelium and CT that covers and protects other structures and tissues
  26. Serous Membrane
    • lines cavities with no outside openings
    • reduces friction
    • secretes serous fluid
    • inner lining of thoracic and abdominal cavities
    • covers organs of thoracic and abdominal cavities
  27. Cutanious Membrane
    • SKIN
    • covers body
  28. Mucus Membrane
    • lines tubes and organs that open to outside world
    • secretes mucous
    • mouth, nose, throat, digestive tract ect.
  29. Synovial Membrane
    surrounds joint cavities
  30. 3 Components of CT
    • cells
    • ground substance
    • fibers
  31. -cyte
    fully differentiated
  32. -blast
    • derived from progenitor cells
    • early stages of differentiation
    • active in synthesis
  33. Fibroblasts
    • "work horses"
    • fix damages(ex. scars)
    • large star-shaped
    • secretes proteins that become fibers
  34. Macrophages
    • motile
    • sometimes attach to fibers
    • clear foreigh substances
  35. Mast Cells
    • large
    • usually near blood vessels
    • release chemicals to promote inflammation
    • heparin/histomine
  36. Collagen Fibers
    • thick threadlike
    • can withstand lots of tension
    • holds structures together
    • ex. tendons/ligaments
  37. Elastic Fibers
    • thin and stretchy
    • able to bounce back
    • ex. vocal cords and air passages
  38. Reticular Fibers
    • thin fibers of collagen
    • makes a "mesh-work"
    • allows cells to stay in CT
    • support networks
  39. Ground Substance
    • HYDROPHYLLIC
    • controls passage of substances through matrix
    • hydrate CT
  40. GAG's- glycosaminoglycans
    • (-) charged polysaccharides
    • major molecule of ground substance
  41. Tendons
    • dense regular CT
    • connects muscle to bone
  42. Ligaments
    • dense regular CT
    • bone to bone
  43. Aponeurosis
    • dense regular CT
    • broad fibrous sheets
    • muscle to muscle(or bone)
  44. Aerolar CT Proper
    • fibroblasts
    • collagen and elastic fibers
    • semiliquid matrix
    • binds skin to underlying organs
    • fills spaces between muscles
    • diffusion and cushioning
  45. Dense Regular CT Proper
    • fibroblasts
    • collagen fibers
    • semiliquid matrix
    • located in tendons and ligaments
    • attachments
  46. Dense Irregular CT Proper
    • fibroblasts
    • collagen fibers
    • semiliquid matrix
    • located in capsules of visceral organs, dermis, periostea, perichondria
    • good for places where stress takes place in any direction
  47. Adipose
    • adipocytes
    • reticular fibers
    • semiliquid matrix
    • located in body fat areas
    • insolation, protection and stores energy
  48. Reticular CT Proper
    • fibroblasts
    • reticular fibers
    • semiliquid matrix
    • located in basement membrane, spleen and liver
    • supports
  49. Elastic CT Proper
    • fibroblasts
    • elastic fibers
    • semiliquid matrix
    • located in heart and lungs
    • duribility with stretch
  50. Mesenchyme
    • located in embryos
    • gives rise to all other CT
  51. Hyaline Caritlage
    • chondrocytes
    • closely packed collagen fibers(so close you can't see them)
    • semisolid matrix
    • located in ribs, ends of bone and nose
    • covered by dense pericardium
    • dense irregular CT
    • chondrocytes arise from this and secrete matrix
  52. Elastic Cartilage
    • chondrocytes
    • elastic fibers
    • semisolid matrix
    • located in the external ear and larynx
    • maintains shape with flexiblity
  53. Fibrocartilage
    • chondrocytes
    • dense interwoven collagen fibers
    • semisolid matrix
    • located in intervertibral disks
    • less firm but tougher then hyaline cartilage
    • strength and shock absorbers
  54. Bone
    • osteocytes
    • collagen fibers
    • solid matrix
    • DENSE=outer bone
    • SPONGY=inner bone
  55. Blood
    • Erythrocytes
    • leukocytes
    • platlets
    • plasma
    • fibrinogen
    • liquid matrix
  56. Fascia
    • connections between organs and the rest of the body
    • strength, stability, organ position and conduits
  57. Superficial Fascia
    • subcutanious(hypodermis) layer
    • aerolar tissue
    • fat
    • between skin and organs
  58. Deep Fascia
    • strong fibrous framework
    • dense CT
    • bound to capsules, tendons and ligaments
  59. Subserous Fascia
    • between serous membrane and deep fascia
    • areolar tissue
  60. Fibrous Pericardium
    fascia in the heart
  61. Muscle Tissue
    • myocytes
    • muscle fiber
  62. Muscle Contractility
    • major property of ALL muscle tissue
    • ability to shorten muscles forcefully
    • causes movement
  63. Skeletal Muscle
    • striated
    • voluntary
    • multi-nucleated
    • unbranched
    • canNOT divide but new fibers can form from other cells
    • SATELLITE(PROGENITOR) CELLS FORM MYOBLASTS WHICH GROW INTO MUSCLE FIBERS
  64. Smooth Muscle
    • walls of organs and blood vessels
    • skin
    • involuntary
    • NOT striated
    • single central nucleous
    • unbranched
  65. Cardiac Muscle
    • involuntary
    • autorythmic
    • striated
    • branched
    • single nucleous
    • (cardiocytes, cardial myocytes, myocardial cells)
    • INTERCALATED DISKS(gap junctions & desmosomes)
  66. Nervous Tissue
    • conducts nerve impulses
    • sensory reception
  67. Neurons
    • recieve and transmit signals
    • soma, dendrites, axons
  68. Neuroglia Cells
    • maintain structure
    • repairs framework
    • performs phagocytosis
    • provides nutrients NOT neural but "neuron support"
  69. Inflammation
    • redness and heat due to increased blood flow
    • swelling and pain due to the chemicals released
    • loss of function which tells body to stop and heal
    • INFLAMMATION -> REPAIR
    • HOMEOSTASIS B/C OF REGENERATION
  70. Mast Cells
    • degranulate and release heparin(keeps blood flow increases nutrients) and histamine(dialates blood vessels gets leaky)
    • increases number and activity level of phagocytes
    • removes toxins and waste
  71. Function of Integument
    • protection from mechanical, chemical, bacterial damage and UV rays
    • temp. regulation
    • fluid conservation
    • excretion
    • vitamin D which helps with calcium absorption
    • sensation(touch and pressure)
  72. Epidermal Stratum
    • 1. Cornium=dead epithelium, keritenized, non-nucleated
    • 2.Lucidum=NOT in thin skin, THICK SKIN ONLY
    • 3. Granulosum=3-5 layers of flattened granular cells
    • 4. Siposium=many layers, developing keratin
    • 5. Basale=deepest, single row of cuboidal/columnar cells that divide and grow, melanocytes ATTACHED TO DERMIS BY BASEMENT MEMBRANE

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