Zoology Lecture 12

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Will123
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Zoology Lecture 12
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2010-10-22 23:45:28
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Zoology Lecture 12
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  1. What kind of muscles do dugesia have
    • circular muscles
    • 2 oblique muscles perpindicular to eachother
    • longitudal muscles
    • dorsoventral muscles
  2. What are the dorsol ventral muscles used for
    for flattening the organism
  3. What two forms of benthick locomotion occur in turbellarians
    • cilliary crawling
    • pedal crawling using muscle waves
  4. Locomotion in turbellarians2 • Swimming
    Smaller cylindrical forms use cilia. –Larger, flattened ones dorsoventral muscle waves
  5. Why are flatworms flat
    for resperation
  6. Where does oxygen enter on a flatworm
    the dorsal side
  7. What size are flat worms maxiamlly. why is this?
    0.5 mm because they cant breathe if they are fatter
  8. Tricladsare _____________ and feed on various _______________________________________.
    • carnivores
    • invertebrates including annelids, snails and crustaceans.
  9. As they crawl, triclads leave _______ trails and prey often get stuck in them
    mucus
  10. A study using immunological methods showed that tricladswere quite selective in what they ate.
  11. Mouth found at the end of a __________ pharynx which is housed in a____________.
    • protrusible
    • muscular sheath.
  12. In tricladsthe gut consists of three branches -one ________ and two __________.
    • anterior
    • posterior
  13. Pharynx protruded by __________ of its circular muscles and __________ into body of prey.
    • contraction
    • inserted
  14. Gland cells in the pharynx and gut secrete ______________, and peristalsis is used to pump semi liquid food into the rest of the gut
    endopeptidases
  15. The material is taken up by ______________ and _______________ and digestion finished intracellularly.
    • pinocytosis
    • phagocytosis
  16. What are the relative contributions of extra-vs. intracellular digestion?
    its faster i guess
  17. The ___________ gut of triclads(and polyclads) allows most cells in the body to be near sites of digestion.
    branched
  18. ______________ from the gut gets the amino acids, fatty acids, monosaccharides, etc. to end user cells in adequate amounts.
    Diffusion
  19. Tricladsas fresh H2O organisms face bursting from osmotic influx of H20 therefore the
    The __________________ system rids the body of excess H2O
    protonephridial
  20. How does protonephridia work?
    • Beating flagella draws H2O and smaller dissolved molecules and ions
    • from the mesenchymeand pushes it down the tubular system.
    • –ultrafiltration
  21. What happens to the rate of urine production when we change osmotic concnetration of the outside world
    the rate of urine produciton chages as well
  22. is urine more or less dilute under noraml circumstances
    urine is more dilute then extracellular fluid under noraml circumstances
  23. what system of nerves does tricals have
    a ladder like system
  24. do turverellians have eyes?
    yes. rhabdomeric eyes tho which is simly a single lyer of pigmented cells forming a cup
  25. What sensors are used as chemosensors
    pit organs of auricles
  26. what enables a turbellians to regenerate so well
    stem cells in the mesenchyme
  27. what happens to degusia during winter?
    degusie goes to a more juvenile state in winter
  28. fig 8.12
  29. Do degusia perform asexual reproduction? if so how so? by transverese binary fission
    yes.
  30. are populatons of degusia seperated in any way? if so how?
    by the way in which they reproduce. Asexuals cant sexually reproduce. sexuals cant asecually reproduce and some mixed cases
  31. Dugesia • ♂ –Line of _____ along each side
    –Paired vas deferens to seminal vesicles, which are connected via an ejaculatory duct to a ______ (penis)
    • testes
    • cirrus
  32. ♀ –Pair of ovaries, ovovitellineducts with yolk glands (vitellaria), single copulatorybursa, and vagina.
  33. ♀♂_____________ give appearance of a single external genital opening.
    gonopores
  34. fig 8.10
  35. In hermaphroditic platyhelminths mutual ___________________ is the rule.
    cross fertilization
  36. Note: sperm in the phylum are peculiar in that the flagellum has a ___ axoneme instead of the usual _____ arrangement.
    • 9+1
    • 9+2
  37. End

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