Ch4 Important Points
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Synesthesia may be found in as many as:
1 in every 100 people.
Psychophysicists begin the measurement process with...
A single sensory signal to determine precisely how much physical energy is required to evoke a sensation in an observer
Investigators typically define the absolute threshold as:
The loudness required for the listener to say she or he has heard the tone on 50% of the trials.
Relationship between intensity and frequency:
directly proportional. higher intensity, stimulation detected more frequently.
Signal detection theory allows researcher to __________ an observer's response in the presence of _________.
3 properties of light waves:
- 1. Wavelength=colour
- 2. Amplitude=Brightness
- 3. Purity(#of wavelengths that make up the light)=richness of colours
What happens when light hits the eye?
Light --> Cornea --> Pupil (in Iris) --> Lens --> Retina
What is light adaptation?
Type of sensory adaptation. Variation in pupil size based on light conditions.
Explain Nearsightedness and farsightedness.
- Near=myopia=long eyeball
- far=heropia=short eyeball
Types of photoreceptor cells found in retina:
- 1. Cones (6million/retina)
- 2. Rods (120million/retina) except for in the fovea
Gesalt Perceptual Grouping Rules:
- 6.Common Fate
Researchers have proposed two broad explanations of objec recognition. What are they?
- 1. Image-Based: an object you have seen before is stored in memory as a template.
- 2. Part-Based: the brain deconstructs viewed objects into a collection of parts.
Several momocular depth cues:
- 1. Linear perspective-parallel lines seem to converge as they recede into the distance.
- 2. Texture gradient: Size of the pattern elements and the distance between them, grow smaller as the surface recedes from the observer.
- 3. Interposition: occurs when one object partly blocks another. Cannot provide info abobut how far apart the two objects are by itself.
- 4. Relative Height in the Image: depends on your field of vision. closer objects are lower in your visual field; far away=higher.
Properties of Sound Waves:
- f is directly proportional to the pitch
- A is directly proportional to volume
- Complexity: simple=pure, and complex=mix of f
3 Parts of the Ear
- 1. Outer: Collects waves and sends to Middle Ear.
- 2. Middle: In skull, transduces waves into neural impulses.
- 3. Inner: Contains Cochlea
A normal young adult with normal hearing ideally can detect sounds between about ____ and _____ Hz. Human ear is most sensitive to frequencies around ______.
20 and 20000 Hz. 1000 to 3500 Hz.
Ears have 2 mechanisms to encode sound-wave frequency. What are they??
- Place Code - for high frequencies.
- Temporal Code - for for low frequencies.
Hearing Loss has two main causes:
1. Coductive hearing loss - due to damaged eardrum or ossicles, to the point where they cant conduct sound waves effectively to the cochlea.
2. Sensorineural hearing loss - dua to damage to the cochlea, hair cells, or the auditory nerve.
4 Types of Receptors located under the skin's surface enable us to sense:
- 1. Pressure
- 2. Texture
- 3. Pattern
- 4. Vibration
against the skin.
The experience of pain depends on signals that travel along two distinct pathways:
- 1. Sends signals to the somatosensory cortex to indicate the location and type of pain.
- 2. Sends signals to the emotional centers of the brain that result in upleasant feelings that we wish to escape.
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