Ch4 Important Points

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Author:
Kaha
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44341
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Ch4 Important Points
Updated:
2010-10-23 15:46:42
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Sensation Perception
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Key Points
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  1. Synesthesia may be found in as many as:
    1 in every 100 people.
  2. Psychophysicists begin the measurement process with...
    A single sensory signal to determine precisely how much physical energy is required to evoke a sensation in an observer
  3. Investigators typically define the absolute threshold as:
    The loudness required for the listener to say she or he has heard the tone on 50% of the trials.
  4. Relationship between intensity and frequency:
    directly proportional. higher intensity, stimulation detected more frequently.
  5. Signal detection theory allows researcher to __________ an observer's response in the presence of _________.
    quantify; noise
  6. 3 properties of light waves:
    • 1. Wavelength=colour
    • 2. Amplitude=Brightness
    • 3. Purity(#of wavelengths that make up the light)=richness of colours
  7. What happens when light hits the eye?
    Light --> Cornea --> Pupil (in Iris) --> Lens --> Retina
  8. What is light adaptation?
    Type of sensory adaptation. Variation in pupil size based on light conditions.
  9. Explain Nearsightedness and farsightedness.
    • Near=myopia=long eyeball
    • far=heropia=short eyeball
  10. Types of photoreceptor cells found in retina:
    • 1. Cones (6million/retina)
    • 2. Rods (120million/retina) except for in the fovea
  11. Gesalt Perceptual Grouping Rules:
    • 1.Simplicity
    • 2.Closure
    • 3.Continuity
    • 4.Similarity
    • 5.Proximity
    • 6.Common Fate
  12. Researchers have proposed two broad explanations of objec recognition. What are they?
    • 1. Image-Based: an object you have seen before is stored in memory as a template.
    • 2. Part-Based: the brain deconstructs viewed objects into a collection of parts.
  13. Several momocular depth cues:
    • 1. Linear perspective-parallel lines seem to converge as they recede into the distance.
    • 2. Texture gradient: Size of the pattern elements and the distance between them, grow smaller as the surface recedes from the observer.
    • 3. Interposition: occurs when one object partly blocks another. Cannot provide info abobut how far apart the two objects are by itself.
    • 4. Relative Height in the Image: depends on your field of vision. closer objects are lower in your visual field; far away=higher.
  14. Properties of Sound Waves:
    • f is directly proportional to the pitch
    • A is directly proportional to volume
    • Complexity: simple=pure, and complex=mix of f
  15. 3 Parts of the Ear
    • 1. Outer: Collects waves and sends to Middle Ear.
    • 2. Middle: In skull, transduces waves into neural impulses.
    • 3. Inner: Contains Cochlea
  16. A normal young adult with normal hearing ideally can detect sounds between about ____ and _____ Hz. Human ear is most sensitive to frequencies around ______.
    20 and 20000 Hz. 1000 to 3500 Hz.
  17. Ears have 2 mechanisms to encode sound-wave frequency. What are they??
    • Place Code - for high frequencies.
    • Temporal Code - for for low frequencies.
  18. Hearing Loss has two main causes:
    1. Coductive hearing loss - due to damaged eardrum or ossicles, to the point where they cant conduct sound waves effectively to the cochlea.

    2. Sensorineural hearing loss - dua to damage to the cochlea, hair cells, or the auditory nerve.
  19. 4 Types of Receptors located under the skin's surface enable us to sense:
    • 1. Pressure
    • 2. Texture
    • 3. Pattern
    • 4. Vibration

    against the skin.
  20. The experience of pain depends on signals that travel along two distinct pathways:
    • 1. Sends signals to the somatosensory cortex to indicate the location and type of pain.
    • 2. Sends signals to the emotional centers of the brain that result in upleasant feelings that we wish to escape.

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