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What is the cause of childhood injuries and death?
Auto and traffic accidents is the number 1 reason. Burns and drowing also.
What is Eriksons theory of Initiative vs guilt?
If they are successful in becoming more independent they feel good about themselves. If not they might feel guilt and low self esteem. Piggybacks off autonomy shame and guilt.
What is play?
Is a way for children to learn about themselves and thier social world. They act out scenes in the home and highly visible occupations. With parental guidance they can adopt more and gender roles in society.
Piaget's pre operational period.
Cognitive development that has four components:
Awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes on shape or appearance.
Focus only on one part such as height and width
Cannot mentally undo something.
Limited ability to see things from another persons viewpoint.
Beleif that all things are alive.
Beleif that the effect is seen as the cause.
What are freindships like in early childhood?
You are freinds if:
They like you
They have a toy you like
They want to play with you
Self centeredness is normal at this age.
Its about what the child needs at that time.
Memory skills for a child
Attention does start to improve.
Not good at using memory strategies.
Can use scripts.
Not good at rehersal and orgainzation.
Memorizing familiar words.
Counts to 10 and can do basic math calcs.
Headstart is a program designed for inner city youth that istwo years of pre school, nutrition education and parental involvement. The program works well but when children reach school age the benefit drops off due to substandard schools. But the ability remains and children can do better in school thruout life.
Self esteem is high.
Physical appearance since they are cute and people tell them all the time.
Possesions are linked to self concept if they like a toy or object they posess.
Task completion is also linked to self esteem because of the big deal we make of accomplisments.
Agression. Two types:
Hurting someone to get what you want. THe intent is not to hurt the other person but to get what they want such as a toy.
No intervention is needed because this goes away on its own.
This is when the intent is to hurt another person. Intervention is needed.
Watching violent television
Violent programming is linked or corrolated (not absolute) to agressive moods thoughts or actions.
Three types of parenting styles
Moderate control. Moderate warmth, Allows child to have some control and gain experience in decision making.
Nice balance of each variable. Links to good results in children and especiall adolescents.
High control and low warmth. Very strict household. No negotiation in anything. No experience with decision making.
Low control and high warmth.
They identify early with boy or girl toys. Society impacts our gender roles.
Talking to oneself as they count out loud. Diminishes to whisper over time. When finally the counting is internalized.
BEst for children. Shows like sesame street have a benefit at this age.
Such as spongebob have no educational benefits and actually have a negative affect on school sucess and social experiences.