BioTest2

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rbaker59
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44419
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BioTest2
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2010-10-23 19:56:59
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biology test 2
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  1. what are the different organelles and what are their functions
    • nucleus-house DNA - endomembrane
    • endoplasmic recticulum-rough(synthesis and assembly of proteins) smooth(synthesis of lipids and carbohydrates)
  2. define cytoskeleton
    system of fibers that give support to the cell and aid in the carrying out of intracellular functions
  3. what are the different types of cytoskeleton fiber and what protines are the made up of?
    • microtubules-tubulin
    • microfiliments-actin
    • intermediate filaments-karatin
  4. what are the functions of the cytoskeleton
    • motility
    • shape and support
    • organelle, position and or movement
  5. what is 9-2 (9+2) structure of flagella and cilia?
    • it is the internal arrangement of microtubles within those structures
    • eukaryotes
  6. define cell wall middle lamella?
    substance or structure between the cell walls of plants it holds cell walls together and orgizes them
  7. what polysaccharide is middle lamella made up of?
    protein
  8. what is the extra cellular matrix and what are its components?
    • a network of protiens and carbohydrates that surrounds many animal cells, cellular protection, communication
    • glycoprotiens
    • collagens
    • fibronectins
    • proteoglicans
  9. what are the components of the plasma membrane
    phospholipids and proteins, cholesterol
  10. what is the importance of the fluid mosaic model proposed by singer and nicolson in 1972?
    the structure or the organization of the plasma membrane-its the current model
  11. to what does "fluid" refer and "mosaic refer?
    • fluid-phospholipid by layer
    • mosaic-protiens
  12. what are glycoprotiens?
    any type of protien that has at least one carbohydrate attached to it
  13. what are the differences between integral and peripheral protiens and what is a transmembrane protien
    • integral-they go through at least one of the phospholipid bilayers
    • peripheral-they don't cross any of the phospholipid bilayers, they are just loosely attached usualy to the cytoplamic side
    • transmembrane-cross both of the phospholipid bilayers
  14. what does selective permeable mean?
    certain things will be able to diffuse across the plasma membrane
  15. what kinds of things can or cannot readily diffuse across the plasma membrane?
    • can diffuse-lipids, nonpolar small gases, oxygen, carbon dioxide
    • cannot diffuse-polar substnaces, ions, glucose amino acids
  16. define diffusion
    the net movement of particles from a region of higher concentration to a region of low consentration, resulting from random motion-equal consentration doesn't require additional energy
  17. what is a concentration gradient
    the diffusion of something from high to low concentration
  18. what are some of the different kinds of diffusion
    • passive transport is diffusion across a membrane
    • facilitated diffusion is diffusion through a carrier protien or channel
    • osmosis is diffusion of water across a membrane
  19. what do isotonic, hypotonic, hypertonic mean?
    • hypertonic-higher concentration
    • hpotonic-low concentration
    • isotonic-equal concentration
  20. what is active transport and how does it differ from any of the forms of diffusion?
    it is diffusion up or against the concentration gradient and requires additional energy, it moves things away from equalibrium
  21. what are three examples of ABC transporters and how do they work?
    • proton pump (plants)
    • sodium potassium pump
    • calcium pump
  22. what is the electochemical gradient
    the diffusion of ions, usually positive is extracellular, using ATP the cell activily transports positivly charged ions out of the cell up the concentration gradient
  23. what is membrane potential
    membrane that seperates differently charged ions positivly charged one are on extracellular side negitively charged one are on the cytoplasmic side
  24. what is cotransport
    one substnace is being moved down the concentration gradient and the other is being moved up the concentration gradient which is indirect active transport
  25. when refering to cotransport what is uniport, symport, antiport?
    • uniport-moving one substance across the plamsa membrane (not cotransport)
    • symport-both substances moving in the same direction (cotransport)
    • antiport-substances moving in different directions (cotransport)
  26. what is exocytosis vs. endocytosis
    • exocytosis-moving things out of the cell
    • endocytosis-moving things into the cell
  27. what is plasmodesmata? what are gap junctions?
    • plasmodesmata-are small openings in the cell wall that can perform cytoplasmic bridge in plants
    • gap junction-small openings in cell wall that can perform cytoplasmic bridge in animals
  28. what are ligands/signal molecules?
    a substance that binds to the receptor protien to initiate a certain metobolic cellular response
  29. know names and identify the differnet categories of receptor protiens in signal transduction?
    membrane receptor protiens-ion channel linked receptor, g-protine linked receptor (perperal protien), enzyme linked receptor (tyrosine kinase receptor)
  30. how are intracellular receptors different from other receptors
    they are on the inside of cell on the cytoplasmic side
  31. what is the difference between the g-protien linked receptor and a g-proteine and why are g-protiens named as such
    • the g-protien does not have a receptor site and it is on the wrong side of the membrane and is a peripheral protien. the g-protien linked receptor is integral
    • g-protien are called as such because they have a GTP linked to them why they are active and a GDP linked to them while inactive
  32. what is a second messenger and which one did we study
    • a substance (cyclic amp or calcium ion) that relays a message from hormone bound to a cell surface receptor which leads to some change in the cell
    • cyclic AMP
    • CA2/IP3, synthizied
  33. what is the function of adenylyl cyclase?
    converts ATP to cyclic AMP
  34. what is the relationship of phospholipase C, PIP2, and IP3
    • phospholipase C is an enzyme that catalizes the reaction that cleaves PiP2 into IP3 into DAG
    • IP3 is synthisized as a result of the cleaving of PiP2
  35. how many second messanger did the CA2+/IP3 pathway have
    2 second messangers, calcium ion IP3
  36. what type of diffusion was involved specifically a Ca2+ moved into the cytoplasm
    facilitated diffusion
  37. explain what calmodulin is?
    it is a calcium transport protien
  38. what is phosphorylation and what type of enzyme is in involved in a phosphorylation cascade
    • something getting a phosphate group attached to it
    • kinase
  39. define metabolism
    the sum of all chemical reaction inside a living organism
  40. what is catabolism
    the opposite of anabolism
  41. what is anabolism
    the aspect of metebolism is which simpler substances are combined to form more complex substances
  42. which precept of the cell theory account for our interest in memebolism?
    all chemical reactions occuring in an organism begin at the cellular level
  43. what is the first law of thermodynamics
    • the total amount of energy is constant and it can't be created or destroyed
    • the total amount of energy in a system and its surrounding is constant
  44. what is the second law of thermodynamics
    in a closed system there is a propensity for usable energy (free energy) to decrease, while entropy increases
  45. how does an open system differ from a closed system
    open system exchange energy with its surrounding a closed system does not
  46. free energy vs entropy
    • free energy is usable
    • entropy is unusable energy
  47. exergonic vs energonic
    • exergonic-releasing energy
    • endurgonic-requiring a net imput of energy to get going
  48. know the 3 general delta G values that we discussed
    • delta G- change in free engergy
    • delta G < 0 exergonic
    • 0<delta G edurgonic
    • delta G=0 equalibrium
    • metobolic equalibrium=your dead
  49. what is a coupled reaction
    use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic process
  50. what is ATP and what is the structure of ATP?
    • ATP-adenosine triphosphate is the energy strandard
    • the structure of ATP is nucleotide triphosphate
  51. what are enzymes and what does "-ase" indicate
    • they are catalytic protiens
    • enzymes names end is ase
  52. how do enzymes work
    they lower the amount o factivation energy needed to get to the transition state
  53. enzymes exhibit selectivity as to substrates, what does this mean?
    there has to be the right match between the enzyme and the substrate
  54. what is the activation energy (Ea)? The transition state?
  55. what are some of the factors that affect enzyme activity
    • ph
    • temperature
    • cofactor
    • inhibitor
  56. what is the active site
    where the substrate binds, it is where the reaction occurs
  57. what is a cofactor? what do we call organic cofactors
    • a non protien substarte needed by enzyme for normal activity
    • coenzymes (is not a protien)
  58. how is competive inhibition different from noncompetitive inhibition
    • in the case of competitive inhibition the inhibitor or the substrate is competeting fro the active site (the shape is not altered)
    • non competitive the substrate is binding to some sort of allosteris site change the shape and the protien becomes active
  59. what is allosteris
    protien that alternate between active and inactive conformation
  60. substrate level phosphorylation vs oxidative phosphorylation and what enzymes are involved
    • subsrate level phosphorylation happen during the glycolysis cycle and the citric acid cycle and has a kinase that is involved
    • oxidative phoshorylation happens during chemiomosis which is depended on electron transport using the enzyme ATP synthase
  61. know the four steps of aerobic respiration and wher they occur
    • glycolysis-outside mitochondrion in the cytosol
    • transition reaction-in mitochondrion
    • citric acid cycle-mitochondrion matrix
    • electron trasport and chemisomosis-inner mitochondrion membrane this process produces the most ATP
  62. what is chemisomosis
    the process that is driving by elcetron trasport
  63. what are NADH and FADH2
    they are the electron carriers
  64. what is the formula for respiration?
    C6 H12 O6 + 6O2----> 6CO2+6H2O
  65. what is pyruvate?
    a 3 carbon molecule produced by splitting of glucose by glycolysis, you get two pyruvates per split of glucose because glucose has 6 carbons
  66. what acetyl CoA
    molecule formed as pyruvate crosses into mitochondrion and interacts with CoA which is the transition reaction and produces 2 NHDH
  67. what is fermentation?
    it is not in the presence of oxidiation or anerobic respiration which involves the glycolysis step

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