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biology test 2
what are the different organelles and what are their functions
nucleus-house DNA - endomembrane
endoplasmic recticulum-rough(synthesis and assembly of proteins) smooth(synthesis of lipids and carbohydrates)
system of fibers that give support to the cell and aid in the carrying out of intracellular functions
what are the different types of cytoskeleton fiber and what protines are the made up of?
what are the functions of the cytoskeleton
shape and support
organelle, position and or movement
what is 9-2 (9+2) structure of flagella and cilia?
it is the internal arrangement of microtubles within those structures
define cell wall middle lamella?
substance or structure between the cell walls of plants it holds cell walls together and orgizes them
what polysaccharide is middle lamella made up of?
what is the extra cellular matrix and what are its components?
a network of protiens and carbohydrates that surrounds many animal cells, cellular protection, communication
what are the components of the plasma membrane
phospholipids and proteins, cholesterol
what is the importance of the fluid mosaic model proposed by singer and nicolson in 1972?
the structure or the organization of the plasma membrane-its the current model
to what does "fluid" refer and "mosaic refer?
fluid-phospholipid by layer
what are glycoprotiens?
any type of protien that has at least one carbohydrate attached to it
what are the differences between integral and peripheral protiens and what is a transmembrane protien
integral-they go through at least one of the phospholipid bilayers
peripheral-they don't cross any of the phospholipid bilayers, they are just loosely attached usualy to the cytoplamic side
transmembrane-cross both of the phospholipid bilayers
what does selective permeable mean?
certain things will be able to diffuse across the plasma membrane
what kinds of things can or cannot readily diffuse across the plasma membrane?
can diffuse-lipids, nonpolar small gases, oxygen, carbon dioxide
cannot diffuse-polar substnaces, ions, glucose amino acids
the net movement of particles from a region of higher concentration to a region of low consentration, resulting from random motion-equal consentration doesn't require additional energy
what is a concentration gradient
the diffusion of something from high to low concentration
what are some of the different kinds of diffusion
passive transport is diffusion across a membrane
facilitated diffusion is diffusion through a carrier protien or channel
osmosis is diffusion of water across a membrane
what do isotonic, hypotonic, hypertonic mean?
what is active transport and how does it differ from any of the forms of diffusion?
it is diffusion up or against the concentration gradient and requires additional energy, it moves things away from equalibrium
what are three examples of ABC transporters and how do they work?
proton pump (plants)
sodium potassium pump
what is the electochemical gradient
the diffusion of ions, usually positive is extracellular, using ATP the cell activily transports positivly charged ions out of the cell up the concentration gradient
what is membrane potential
membrane that seperates differently charged ions positivly charged one are on extracellular side negitively charged one are on the cytoplasmic side
what is cotransport
one substnace is being moved down the concentration gradient and the other is being moved up the concentration gradient which is indirect active transport
when refering to cotransport what is uniport, symport, antiport?
uniport-moving one substance across the plamsa membrane (not cotransport)
symport-both substances moving in the same direction (cotransport)
antiport-substances moving in different directions (cotransport)
what is exocytosis vs. endocytosis
exocytosis-moving things out of the cell
endocytosis-moving things into the cell
what is plasmodesmata? what are gap junctions?
plasmodesmata-are small openings in the cell wall that can perform cytoplasmic bridge in plants
gap junction-small openings in cell wall that can perform cytoplasmic bridge in animals
what are ligands/signal molecules?
a substance that binds to the receptor protien to initiate a certain metobolic cellular response
know names and identify the differnet categories of receptor protiens in signal transduction?
membrane receptor protiens-ion channel linked receptor, g-protine linked receptor (perperal protien), enzyme linked receptor (tyrosine kinase receptor)
how are intracellular receptors different from other receptors
they are on the inside of cell on the cytoplasmic side
what is the difference between the g-protien linked receptor and a g-proteine and why are g-protiens named as such
the g-protien does not have a receptor site and it is on the wrong side of the membrane and is a peripheral protien. the g-protien linked receptor is integral
g-protien are called as such because they have a GTP linked to them why they are active and a GDP linked to them while inactive
what is a second messenger and which one did we study
a substance (cyclic amp or calcium ion) that relays a message from hormone bound to a cell surface receptor which leads to some change in the cell
what is the function of adenylyl cyclase?
converts ATP to cyclic AMP
what is the relationship of phospholipase C, PIP2, and IP3
phospholipase C is an enzyme that catalizes the reaction that cleaves PiP2 into IP3 into DAG
IP3 is synthisized as a result of the cleaving of PiP2
how many second messanger did the CA2+/IP3 pathway have
2 second messangers, calcium ion IP3
what type of diffusion was involved specifically a Ca2+ moved into the cytoplasm
explain what calmodulin is?
it is a calcium transport protien
what is phosphorylation and what type of enzyme is in involved in a phosphorylation cascade
something getting a phosphate group attached to it
the sum of all chemical reaction inside a living organism
what is catabolism
the opposite of anabolism
what is anabolism
the aspect of metebolism is which simpler substances are combined to form more complex substances
which precept of the cell theory account for our interest in memebolism?
all chemical reactions occuring in an organism begin at the cellular level
what is the first law of thermodynamics
the total amount of energy is constant and it can't be created or destroyed
the total amount of energy in a system and its surrounding is constant
what is the second law of thermodynamics
in a closed system there is a propensity for usable energy (free energy) to decrease, while entropy increases
how does an open system differ from a closed system
open system exchange energy with its surrounding a closed system does not
free energy vs entropy
free energy is usable
entropy is unusable energy
exergonic vs energonic
endurgonic-requiring a net imput of energy to get going
know the 3 general delta G values that we discussed
delta G- change in free engergy
delta G < 0 exergonic
0<delta G edurgonic
delta G=0 equalibrium
metobolic equalibrium=your dead
what is a coupled reaction
use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic process
what is ATP and what is the structure of ATP?
ATP-adenosine triphosphate is the energy strandard
the structure of ATP is nucleotide triphosphate
what are enzymes and what does "-ase" indicate
they are catalytic protiens
enzymes names end is ase
how do enzymes work
they lower the amount o factivation energy needed to get to the transition state
enzymes exhibit selectivity as to substrates, what does this mean?
there has to be the right match between the enzyme and the substrate
what is the activation energy (Ea)? The transition state?
what are some of the factors that affect enzyme activity
what is the active site
where the substrate binds, it is where the reaction occurs
what is a cofactor? what do we call organic cofactors
a non protien substarte needed by enzyme for normal activity
coenzymes (is not a protien)
how is competive inhibition different from noncompetitive inhibition
in the case of competitive inhibition the inhibitor or the substrate is competeting fro the active site (the shape is not altered)
non competitive the substrate is binding to some sort of allosteris site change the shape and the protien becomes active
what is allosteris
protien that alternate between active and inactive conformation
substrate level phosphorylation vs oxidative phosphorylation and what enzymes are involved
subsrate level phosphorylation happen during the glycolysis cycle and the citric acid cycle and has a kinase that is involved
oxidative phoshorylation happens during chemiomosis which is depended on electron transport using the enzyme ATP synthase
know the four steps of aerobic respiration and wher they occur
glycolysis-outside mitochondrion in the cytosol
transition reaction-in mitochondrion
citric acid cycle-mitochondrion matrix
electron trasport and chemisomosis-inner mitochondrion membrane this process produces the most ATP
what is chemisomosis
the process that is driving by elcetron trasport
what are NADH and FADH2
they are the electron carriers
what is the formula for respiration?
C6 H12 O6 + 6O2----> 6CO2+6H2O
what is pyruvate?
a 3 carbon molecule produced by splitting of glucose by glycolysis, you get two pyruvates per split of glucose because glucose has 6 carbons
what acetyl CoA
molecule formed as pyruvate crosses into mitochondrion and interacts with CoA which is the transition reaction and produces 2 NHDH
what is fermentation?
it is not in the presence of oxidiation or anerobic respiration which involves the glycolysis step