Motionless earth was fixed at center of universe, God was beyond.
Aristotelian World View
(1514-1564) -studied the anatomical work of the ancient Greek physician Galen. He published On the Fabric of the Human Body (1543), which is concerned the first great work of modern science and became the foundation of modern biology.
(1561-1626) - English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. Novum Organum (1620). Encouraged inductive reasoning.
(1546-1601) - Established himself as Europe's foremost astronomer of his day, made detailed observations of a new star in 1572.
(1627-1691) - Physicist who said nothing can be known beyond all doubt.
(1701-1744) – Swedish astronomer who invented measurement of temp- Celsius.
(1473-1543) - Polish clergyman. Sun was the center of the universe; the planets went around it. Wrote On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres (1543). Destroyed Aristotle's view of the universe - heliocentric theory.
(1571-1630) – German mathematician. Expanded on the work of Brahe and found the orbit of the planets were ellipses
Sun is the center of the universe. Coperican view.
Earth is the center of the universe. Aristotelian view.
(1596-1650) - French philosopher and mathematician who was educated by the Jesuits. Discovered analytical geometry and saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical (Cartesian Dualism). Famous for the saying “cogito, ergo sum” (I think therefore I am).
doubts everything and use deductive reasoning. Reasoning based on facts. Combined with empiricism to create scientific method.
Baconian empiricism. Based speculations on other situations.
(1677) - Descartes espoused deductive reasoning.
Discourse on Methods
Bacon's theory of inductive reasoning.
(1686-1736) -German physicist who developed measurement of temperature with freezing at 32 degrees.
(1564-1642) - Created modern experimental method. Formulated the law of inertia. Tried for heresy and forced to recant. Saw Jupiter’s moons. Wrote Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World.
First time scientists had an honored roll in society; center of scientific activity in England during the seventeenth century.
(1578-1657) - Englishman who announced blood circulates throughout the body. Laid the foundation of modern medicine.
(1707-78) - Swedish botanist who developed methods to classify and name plants and animals.
Universal law that could be understood by applying reason; letting people govern themselves.
(1642-1727) - English scientist and mathematician who developed 3 laws of motion. Principal of Natural Philosophy (1687).
Last great ancient astronomer; there was a place for God. Complicated rules used to explain minor irregularities in the movement of the planets.
Established by Charles II in 1662; purpose to help the sciences.
The Royal Society of London
Rousseau, discusses the innocence of man and his corruption by society.
Discourses on the Origins of Inequalities
(1694-1778) - French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deism. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide.
(1690) Written by Locke, Government created to protect life, liberty, and property.
Two Treatise of Civil Government
(1690) Written by Locke, tabula rasa theory.
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Art style that focuses on pastels, ornate interiors, and sentimental portraits.
(1750) Montesquieu, about separation of powers.
The Spirit of Laws (De L’espirit des Lois)
(1762) Rousseau, suggestions in reforming the political system and modelled after the Greek polis.
The Social Contract
(1759) Voltaire’s novel satirizing society and organized religion in Europe.
(1689-1755) French philosophe. Wrote The Spirit of Laws (1748). Said, "Power checks power" and expressed the idea of separation of powers.