RNG 353 Midterm 2

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Kinazulu808
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44446
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RNG 353 Midterm 2
Updated:
2010-11-04 05:47:08
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Wildland Plant Identification
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Inter-mountain Salt Desert Plants
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  1. Salt Desert Shrub Location
    Primarily in the Great basin
  2. Salt Desert Shrub
    Composed of a large group of small basins separated by fault block mountain ranges (>150 such areas) scattered throughout the sagebrush grassland area
  3. Salt Desert Shrub - Vegetation
    • Primarily influenced by edaphic factors (salty soils) rather than climate
    • Climate is variable across the region
    • Climate promotes shrubs, soils promote species
  4. Salt Desert Shrub - Vegetation Key Characteristics
    • •Chenopodiaceae
    • •Climax – mostly a single species
    • •Climax – edaphic climax
    • •Controlling factors: salts (concentrations), water table

  5. Salt Desert Shrub - Climate
    • Generally drier than the Sagebrush Grassland (also a little warmer)
    • •Precipitation is approximately 4-8”
    • •Distribution: 50-60% in winter, 30-40% in fall, 10-20% in summer
    • •Winters are cold, summers are hot with high daily fluctuations in summer
    • •Salt desert shrub occurs under conditions hotter, drier, and saltier than sagebrush grasslands
  6. Saltgrass
    • Family: Poaceae
    • Scientific Name: Distichlis spicata
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  7. Distichlis spicata - Identification
    • •Inflorescense: dioecious, panicle
    • •spikelets in narrow contracted panicles
    • •The male inflorescense is larger than the female inflorescence
    • •Leaves stiff, sharp pointed, and coarse when mature
    • •Rhizomatous


  8. Distichlis spicata - Plant Attributes
    • Warm Season Grass
    • Poor seed production, reproduction mostly vegetative
    • Long roots that are relatively shallow (<16")
    • Plants extrude salts through salt glands in the leaves
  9. Distichlis spicata - Forge Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • Livestock generally avoid eating mature saltgrass (harsh, wiry, and tough)
    • Exception re-growth
    • Low to fair palatability to livestock and wildlife
    • Seeds eaten by waterfowl and small mammals
  10. Distichlis spicata - Drought/ Stress, Grazing, Fire Tolerance
    • Drought: high drought and flood tolerance
    • Grazing: grazing tolerant, highly resistant to trampling
    • Fire: Deep rhizomes are insulated from heat, may not destroy seeds in the seedbank
  11. Alkali sacaton
    • Family: Poaceae
    • Scientific Name: Sporobolus airoides
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  12. Sporobolus airoides - Identification
    • Inflorescense: spreading pyramidal panicle, 1 floret per spikelet
    • Robust woody base
    • Leaves inrolled and large
  13. Sporobolus airoides - Plant Attributes
    • Warm Season Grass
    • Reproduction from seed and tillering
  14. Sporobolus airoides - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • Eaten by many classes of livestock and wildlife
    • Palatability is good for cattle, horses and sheep, but fair to poor for elk and deer
    • Cover for wildlife is fair to good for small mammals and birds, and poor for large mammals
  15. Sporobolus airoides - Drought/Stress, Grazing, Fire
    • Very drought, flooding and salinity (but less than saltgrass) tolerant
    • High water use efficiency
    • Tolerant to moderate to light grazing
    • Tolerant but not resistant to fire (killed by severe fire)
    • 2 - 4 year recovery time following fire
  16. Sand Dropseed
    • Family: Poaceae
    • Scientific Name: Sporobolus cryptandrus
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  17. Sporobolus cryptandrus - Identification
    • Inflorescense: base of panicle enclosed in the sheath, short lateral branches (pedicles) on panicle
    • Hair on collar
  18. Sporobolus cryptandrus - Plant Attributes
    • Warm Season grass
    • Shallow rooting species ( fine- fibrous) that form dense mat
    • Prolific seed producer
    • Established rapidly on disturbed sites (early seral species). Quickly colonizes an area.
  19. Sporobolus cryptandrus - Forage Quality, Palatability and Cover
    • Provides good to fair forage for livestock
    • Extended green period
    • Plants are palatable when green, but decline with maturity
    • Provides fair to good cover for small mammals and birds
  20. Sporobolus cryptandrus - Drought/ Stress, Fire Tolerance
    • Drought resistant
    • Plant consumed by fire (badly damaged to killed)
  21. Indian Ricegrass
    • Family: Poaceae
    • Scientific Name: Stipa hymenoides
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  22. Stipa hymenoides - Identification
    Inflorescense: Panicle, dichotomous branching, blumes with points, lemma pubescent, large seed
  23. Stipa hymenoides - Plant Attributes
    • Cool season bunchgrass
    • Deep, fibrous, extensive root system
    • Spreads "aggressively" from seed with wet conditions
    • Mid - seral species
  24. Stipa hymenoides - Forage quality, palatability, and cover
    • •Provides good to excellent forage for livestock and wildlife
    • •Used heavily by livestock in late winter when succulent, green leaves are produced as well as spring and summer (cures well)
    • •Moderate use by pronghorn, high use by elk, deer and bison
    • •High rodent and jackrabbit consumption
    • •Fair to poor cover for small mammals and birds
  25. Stipa hymenoides - Drought/ Stress, Grazing, Fire Tolerance
    • Most drought tolerant native range grasses
    • Decreaser species
    • Low tolerance to heavy grazing
    • Re-establishes rapidly with seed
  26. Russian Thistle
    • Family: Chenopodiaceae
    • Scientific Name: Salsola iberica
    • Origin: Introduced
    • Life Span: Annual
  27. Salsola iberica - Habitat
    • Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the U.S. Native of Russia
    • Plant Communities: semi-arid regions, grasslands, desert ecosystems
    • Soil Types: well-drained, non-compacted soils. Cannot tolerate saturated soil. Does best in alkaline or saline conditions
    • Location: alkali flats, playas, roadsides, disturbed areas
  28. Salsola iberica - Identification
    • Size highly variable
    • Leaves : stiff & spine tipped, young leaves long narrow and spine tipped, old leaves short and spine tipped, stem red striped
  29. Salsola iberica - Plant Attributes
    • Warm season forb
    • Produces at taproot that can extend 1m with extensive lateral roots (depending on competition)
    • Highly successful reproducer (250,000 seeds, viable for 1 year)
    • Dispersal aided with winged seed
    • Plants dominate after disturbance, but become shorter and less dense with increasing competition




  30. Salsola iberica - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • Eaten by cattle and sheep when young
    • Important food source for small mammals and birds (quail)
    • Palatability depends on time of year
    • Provides fair nutrition
    • Animals can develop mouth ulcers
  31. Salsola iberica - Drought/ Stress, Grazing, Fire Tolerance
    • High water use efficiency
    • Avoid drought, grows fast
    • Alkaline & saline tolerance
    • invader species
    • may increase due to decreased competition
    • High speed production allows rapid invasion from nearby seed sources
  32. Fourwing saltbush
    • Family/ Tribe: Chenopodiaceae
    • Scientific Name: Atriplex canescens
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  33. Atriplex canescens - Identification
    • Inflorescense: dioecious, fruit with 4 notched papery wings
    • Leaves: long liner, alternate, fasciculated, silver-green
    • Branches stiff to 3' tall
  34. Atriplex canescens - Plant Attributes
    • Warm season shrub
    • Deep taproot (20')
    • Extreme genetic diversity across geographic and elevation gradients
    • Highly used in revegetation projects
  35. Atriplex canescens - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • Provides year round forage for livestock and wildlife
    • Important in winter and during dormancy periods
    • One of the most palatable shrubs in the west
    • Nutritious forage for all classes
    • good cover for small mammals and birds
  36. Atriplex canescens - Drought/stress, Grazing, Fire Tolerance
    • Highly tolerant of drought, salinity and alkalinity
    • Adapted to grazing
    • Showing compensatory growth following defoliation
    • May decline with very heavy grazing
    • Fire resistant in comparison with most shrub
    • May resprout following fire
  37. Shadescale
    • Family/Tribe: Chenopodiaceae
    • Scientific Name: Atriplex confertifolia
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  38. Ariplex confertifolia - Identification
    • •Inflorescense: fruit does not have prominent wings
    • •Leaves ovate to roundish, some resemble fish scales
    • •Some branches end in spines
  39. Atriplex confertifolia - Plant Attributes
    • •Cool season shrub
    • •Dense, compacted, rounded shrub
    • •Becomes spinescent with age
    • •Deep and dense root system
    • •Regeneration by seed alone
  40. Ariplex confertifolia - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • •Valuable forage species for livestock and wildlife
    • •Nutritious palatable species for deer, pronghorn, bighorn sheep, rodents, rabbits, and songbirds
    • •Decrease in shadscale was followed by a decrease in rodents and subsequently golden eagles
    • •Eaten by sheep and cattle, but not eaten when spiny limbs are exposed
    • •Provides good cover for small mammals and birds (brewers sparrows, sage sparrows, sage thrashers)
  41. Atriplex confertifolia - Drought/stress, Grazing, Fire tolerance
    • Very drought tolerant (4-8: precip zone)
    • Spinescent habit lends to browsing tolerance
    • Reduced competition with other species increases density/cover
    • Intolerant for fire (top killed)
    • Does not recover rapidly from fire
  42. Greasewood
    • Family/Tribe: Chenopodiaceae
    • Scientific Name: Sarcobatus vermiculatus
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  43. Sarcobatus vermiculatus - Identification
    • •Leaves narrow and tapering (filiform, fleshy)
    • •Branches scraggly, shiny, spiny
    • •Branches often at right angles to main stem
    • •Younger stems whitish, old stems dark
    • •Leaves wrinkled when dry
    • •Monoecious shrub
  44. Sarcobatus vermiculatus - Plant Attributes
    • Warm season shrub
    • Forms clones creating large clump of plants
    • Regeneration by seed and sprouts (clones)
  45. Sarcobatus vermiculatus - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • •Important browse for sheep, cattle, and large ungulate wildlife species (especially during winter)
    • •Fair palatability, but does have high salt and potassium oxalate (can cause death in sheep and cows that eat large amounts)
    • •Provides excellent cover for deer, pronghorn, small mammals and birds
  46. Sarcobatus vermiculatus - Drought/stress, grazing, Fire Tolerance
    • Very drought and salt tolerant
    • Very grazing tolerant (increaser)
    • Top-killed, but resprouts quickly after fire
    • Increase in abundance and vigor following fire
  47. Winterfat
    • Family/Tribe: Chenopodiaceae
    • Scientific Name: Ceratoides lanata
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
    • Other names: Krascheninnikovia lanata, Eurotia lanata
  48. Ceratoides lanata - Identification
    • •Inflorescense: Monoecious, stamenate terminal and pistillate axillary
    • •Leaves and twigs wooly, silver gray or dense red in color
    • •Leaves with prominent midribs
    • •Suffrutescent to woody
  49. Ceratoides lanata - Plant Attributes
    • •Cool season shrub
    • •Long-lived (130 years)
    • •Deep taproot (25’) and fibrous, lateral roots
    • •Regeneration from seed and sprouting at the crown
    • •Hairy seed help anchor it to soil
    • •Climax species
  50. Ceratoides lanata - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • •Important forage species for livestock and wildlife (especially during winter months)
    • •Major forage species for rabbits and bighorn sheep (60-70%)
    • •Highly palatable and nutritious (considered also “ice cream plant”)
    • •High crude protein (21% in spring)
    • •Good cover for small mammals and birds
  51. Ceratoides lanata - Drought/Stess, Grazing, Fire Tolerance
    • Very drought tolerant
    • Decreaser species
    • Late winter or early spring grazing can be detrimental
    • Plants are tolerant of moderate fire
    • Top burned by high intensity fire
    • High sprouting following moderate fire and seed are not destroyed
  52. Mormon tea
    • Family/Tribe: Ephedraceae
    • Scientific Name: Ephedra trifurca
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  53. Ephedra trifurca - Identification
    • •Erect shrub, branches nearly smooth, spine tipped and pale green
    • •Leaves reduced to scales, whorled in groups of three
    • •Stems jointed
  54. Ephedra trifurca - Plant Attributes
    • •Evergreen shrub
    • •Dioceous
    • •Provides soil stability in desert ecosystems (anchor in desert sand dunes) – good for reveg
    • •Tea is produced from the branches. Contains the drug ephedrine
  55. Ephedra trifurca - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • •Browse for deer, pronghorn, bighorn sheep and livestock (primarily cattle)
    • •Palatability is fair, forage value is low
    • •Provides good to fair cover for deer, pronghorn, small mammals and birds
  56. Ephedra trifurca - Drought/Stress, Grazing, Fire Tolerance
    • Very, very, drought tolerant
    • Very grazing tolerant
    • Topkilled by fire
    • Survival depends on intensity
    • Some resprouting capability
  57. Black sage
    • Family/Tribe: Asteraceae
    • Scientific Name: Artemisia nova
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  58. Artemisia nova - Identification
    • •Inflorescense: flower stalks persistent (1-3 years), Flowers golden brown
    • •Leaves: margins dip inward near the apex, giving a bell-shaped appearance, Deep green color, black glands on surface
    • •Decumbent branches from spreading base
  59. Artemisia nova - Plant attributes
    • •Evergreen shrub (Cool Season)
    • •More shallow and fibrous root system than Artr
    • •Regeneration from seed (Oct dispersal)
    • •Climax species
  60. Artemisia nova - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • •Important browse species in the Intermountain region
    • •Valuable winter feed on snow-free rangelands
    • •Can be lethal to sheep if consumed in bulk over a short time. Can cause lamb abortion
    • •Highly palatability to sheep and large ungulate wildlife species (pronghorn, mule deer)
    • •Good cover for small mammals and birds
  61. Artemisia nova - Drought/stress, fire tolerance
    • Drought tolerant
    • Plant are easily killed by fire and do not resprout
    • Sparse vegetation in stands dominated by Arno precludes fire occurrence
  62. Bud sage
    • Family/Tribe: Asteraceae
    • Scientific Name: Artemisia spinescens
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  63. Artemisia spinescens- Identification
    • •Inflorescense: old flowering branches persistent as spines
    • •Leaves: 3-5 parted, clustered (bud appearance), tip rounded
  64. Artemisia spinescens - Plant Attributes
    • Cool season shrub, summer deciduous
    • Early seral to climax species
    • Pungently aromatic
  65. Artemisia spinescens - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • •Good forage for upland birds, small mammals, large ungulate wildlife species and domestic sheep
    • •Can be fatal to cows and calves when eaten in large quantities or eaten alone
    • •Entire plant may be browsed back by jackrabbits
    • •Provides little cover to wildlife. Fair cover for small mammals and birds
  66. Artemisia spinescens - Drought/stress, grazing, fire Tolerance
    • Drought tolerant
    • High palatability in spring during new growth makes plants susceptible
    • Plants are killed by fire
  67. Pacific bunchgrass region - Distirbution
    • Open-timbered or untimbered areas of the west. Typical: Montana , Idaho, Oregon
    • Characteristic species: Bluebunch wheatgrass (Elymus spicatus), Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis)
    • Other associated species: sideoats grama (later), Koeleria macrantha, shrubs typical of the sagebrush grassland (non dominant), forbs
  68. Pacific bunchgrass region - Characteristics
    • •Deep, rich soils
    • •Mostly prairies
    • •Precipitation: 300-760 mm (12-30”)
    • •Today, area is mostly farmland
  69. Mulesears
    • Family/Tribe: Asteraceae
    • Scientific Name: Wyethia amplexicaulis
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  70. Wyethia amplexicaulis - Identification
    • •Inflorescense: Heads solitary, large and showy, Ray flowers with long (2-5 cm), yellow
    • •Leaves: Alternate, Simple, blades oblong-lanceolate, very large, surface glossy and strongly veined
    • •Stems rarely branched
  71. Wyethia amplexicaulis - Plant Attributes
    • •Cool season forb
    • •Thick taproot
    • •Regeneration by seed and from underground root stalks or from root crown
    • •May occur in large, dense stands
    • •Competitive forb






  72. Wyethia amplexicaulis - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • •Poor to fair forage
    • •Eaten by deer and sheep when young
    • •Mature plants are coarse and harsh
    • •Livestock, elk and deer eat flower heads
    • •Generally unpalatable
    • •Poor in protein and energy content
    • •Good cover for birds and small mammals
  73. Wyethia amplexicaulis - Drought/Stress, Grazing, Fire Tolerance
    • Drought intolerant
    • Increaser with high intensity grazing
    • Topkilled by fire
    • Fire increases plant density
  74. Storksbill or filaree
    • Family/Tribe: Geraniaceae
    • Scientific Name: Erodium cicutarium
    • Origin: Introduced
    • Life Span: Annual
  75. Erodium cicutarium - Identification
    • •Inflorescense: Umbel, petals 5, pink,
    • Fruits: stand erect at base of bent pedicels.
    • •Leaves: opposite, compound, glandular pubescent
    • •Hairy stem
  76. Erodium cicutarium - Plant Attributes
    • •Cool season forb
    • •Pioneer species to mid seral systems
    • •Established following disturbance
    • •Slender, shallow rooting system (10 cm)
    • •Regeneration from seed (high seed production)
  77. Erodium cicutarium - Forage Quality, Palatability
    • •Seasonal forage for livestock and wildlife
    • •Important food for rodents, desert tortoise, big game, upland birds
    • •Good to excellent palatability
    • •Seeds are highly palatable to rodents
  78. Erodium cicutarium - Drought/Stress, Grazing Tolerance
    • Prefers full sun but tolerates some shade
    • Increases with high intensity grazing
    • Establishes in overgrazed sites
  79. Tailcup lupine
    • Family/Tribe: Fabaceae
    • Scientific Name: Lupinus caudatus
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  80. Lupinus caudatus - ID
    • •Inflorescense: Terminal racemes
    • •Leaves: Alternate, Palmately compound





  81. Lupinus caudatus - Plant Attributes
    • •Cool season forb
    • •Branch from a woody caudex
    • •Stout, deep taproot
    • •Reproduction by seed
    • •Nitrogen fixation allows plants to establish in sites with poor soil nutrients
  82. Lupinus caudatus - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • •Moderate forage quality for livestock and wildlife
    • •Moderate consumption by elk, deer, pronghorn, upland birds, small mammals
    • •Utilized by sheep, horses and cattle
    • •Highly toxic to livestock, especially sheep (alkaloids)
    • •sheep poisoned with .13 to .25 pounds per day for 3-4 days (1-1.5 for cows)
  83. Desert Grassland Region - Location
    • S.E. Arizona, S. New Mexico, S.W. Texas
    • 1000-2000 m elevation
    • found in basins, sloping drainages, or on lower slopes of mountain ranges
    • arid of grasslands in US (mean rainfall 9-18"; 250 -500 mm)
  84. Desert Grassland - Vegetation
    • grow and set seed rapidly when it rains
    • dominants grow during later half of summer
    • dominated by warm season species
  85. Black grama
    • Family: Poaceae
    • Scientific Name: Bouteloua eriopoda
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  86. Bouteloua eriopoda - Identification
    • •Inflorescense: Spikes 3-5 per culm, awns as long or longer than spikelets
    • •Culms white-lanate, mostly decumbent or stoloniferous
    • •Foliage mostly basal
  87. Bouteloua eriopoda - Plant Attributes
    • warm season grass
    • well developed fibrous root system
    • regeneration primarily by tillering and stolons (slow spread rate)
    • poor seed production since most spikelets produce sterile florets
  88. Bouteloua eriopoda - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • •Excellent forage for all classes of livestock and wildlife
    • •Highly palatable forage
    • •One of the most nutritious desert grasses for livestock
    • •High protein content, especially when young
    • •Low cover value due to small size
  89. Bouteloua eriopoda - Drought/Stress, Grazing, Fire Tolerance
    • Drought tolerant
    • adapted to sandy soils
    • decreaser, vigor extremely impaired with heavy grazing
    • under heavy grazing, low stolon production
    • fire sensitive
    • slow recover by vegetative spread
  90. Tobosa grass
    • Family: Poaceae
    • Scientific Name: Hilaria mutica
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  91. Hilaria mutica - ID
    • •Inflorescense: Spike; Hairy around the spikelets, base of floret
    • hairy; Glumes translucent and flabellate
    • •Strongly rhizomatous, not stoloniferous
    • •Nodes pubescent
  92. Hilaria mutica - Plant Attributes
    • Warm season grass
    • sod-forming species that creates dense pure stands
  93. Hilaria mutica - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • Good Forage (especailly when young)
    • forage by cattle, horses, sheep, pronghorn and deer
    • restricted to late spring and summer
    • plants unused when dry in late summer/fall. fire helps management
  94. Hilaria mutica - Drought/Stress, Grazing, Fire Tolerance
    • drought tolerant
    • adapted to fine-clayey soil. tolerates soil cracking
    • grazing tolerant (increaser)
    • removing old growth by fire or grazing makes it more palatable
    • recover quickly with vegetative growth
  95. Mesquite
    • Family: Fabaceae
    • Scientific Name: Prosopis glandulosa
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  96. Prosopis glandulosa - ID
    • •Inflorescense:
    • Flowers in drooping spike-like racemes,
    • Long linear fruit (10-20 cm) legume, in clusters 2-3
    • •Leaves pinnate compound, alternate with 6-30 leaflets
    • •Branches armed with straight yellow thorns, usually in pairs
  97. Prosopis glandulosa - Plant Attributes
    • •Warm season shrub
    • •Deciduous
    • •along floodplains and water courses (water access)
    • •Taproot that may exceeds 15 m extracting high volumes of water.
    • •Nitrogen fixing bacteria
    • •Regeneration seed and basal sprouts
  98. Prosopis glandulosa - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • Foliage not consumed (only during drought)
    • Fruit is excellent forage for livestock and wildlife (fall)
    • Food base (july to august) consumed by rodents, birds, porcupines, raccoons, peccary, deer, turkey
    • seed pods are highly palatable (sweet; sugar and proteins)
    • Provides excellent cover for all classes
  99. Prosopis glandulosa - Drought/Stress, Grazing, Fire Tolerance
    • competitive plant species
    • avoids drought by shedding leaves
    • increases with grazing. seed dispersed by animals.
    • low mortality following fire
    • plants topkilled, but resprout vigorously
  100. Creosotebush
    • Family: Zygophyllaceae
    • Scientific Name: Larrea tridentata
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  101. Larrea tridentata - ID
    • •Leaves: opposite and bifoliate, surface dark green glossy, resinous, fused at the base
    • •Evergreen
    • •Nodes dark and swollen
    • •Not well defined trunk
  102. Larrea tridentata - Plant Attributes
    • Cool season shrub
    • caliche layer limits root growth
    • regeneration from seed and sprouting
  103. Larrea tridentata - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • low forage quality
    • small mammals eat seeds
    • food source for jackrabbits (chew bark for water)
    • unpalatable to livestock
    • high content of chemical compounds (anti-herbivory)
  104. Larrea tirdentata - Drought/Stress, Grazing Tolerance
    • high drought tolerant
    • tolerates alkaline soils (caliche)
    • re-sprouting allows for vigorous establishment
    • tends to dominate overgrazed areas
  105. Burrograss
    • Family: Poaceae
    • Scientific Name: Scleropogon brevifolius
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  106. Scleropogon brevifolius - ID
    • •Dioecious
    • •3 awns on female lemma (5-19 cm)
    • •Staminate lemma awn tipped
    • •Culms erect, wiry stolons
    • •Leaves crowded at the base, blades flat, sharp-pointed
  107. Scleropogon brevifolius - Plant attributes
    • warm season grass
    • mat-forming species
    • abundance of this species is potential sign of disturbance or deteriorated range condition
  108. Scleropogon brevifolius - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • Low forage value
    • low palatability (long awns of female plants and harsh leaves)
    • low cover value for wildlife
  109. Scleropogon brevifolius - Drought/Stress, Grazing, Fire
    • tolerant of alkaline or saline soil conditions
    • increaser species
    • vegetative regeneration following fire
  110. Arizona cottontop
    • Family: Poaceae
    • Scientific Name: Digitaria californica
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  111. Digitaria californica - ID
    • •Inflorescense: Panicle of alternating racemes, spikelets covered with long silky hairs
    • •Culms erect from knotty swollen pubescent bases
  112. Digitaria californica - Plant Attributes
    • Warm season grass
    • divided and branched root system
    • reproduction by seed
    • important member of climax communities
    • wet sites, may form almost pure stands
    • plants go dormant during dry period
  113. Digitaria claifornica - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • Valuable forage species (winter)
    • Palatability is high for livestock and fair for wildlife
    • Plants cure well with age, remain palatable throughout the year
  114. Digitaria californica - Drought/ Stress, Grazing, Fire Tolerance
    • Low drought to tolerance
    • tend to grow in wetter places
    • decreaser species
    • intermediate susceptibility to fire
    • growing points at or just below the ground level
  115. Weeping lovegrass
    • Family: Poaceae
    • Scientific Name: Eragrostis curvula
    • Origin: Introduced
    • Life Span: Perennial
  116. Eragrostis curvula - ID
    • •Large open panicle, eventually drooping
    • •Tuft of hair on the lowest panicle branches of the central axis
    • •Long tapering leaves
  117. Eragrostis curvula - Plant Attributes
    • Warm season grass
    • extensive fibrous root system
    • tillering occurs outward forming ring-like growth
    • reproduction by seed (no rhizomes or stolons)
    • establish on disturbed soil and persists in open grassland
  118. Eragrostis curvula - Forage quality, palatability, and cover
    • fair forage for livestock, poor for wildlife
    • pasture grass
    • palatable in spring
    • unpalatable after flowering
    • provides poor cover/habitat
  119. Eragrostis curvula - Drought/Stress, Grazing, Fire Tolerance
    • adapted to summer rainfall
    • grazing tolerant (increaser)
    • topkilled by fire
    • deep roots and dense crown protect it from fire
  120. Bush muhly
    • Family: Poaceae
    • Scientific Name: Muhlenbergia porteri
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  121. Muhlenbergia perteri - ID
    • •Panicle open, much branched, wiry, knotty base
    • •One floret per spikelet
    • •Lemma purple with a delicate awn
    • •Crooked culms (geniculate), branched culms
  122. Muhlenbergia porteri - Plant attributes
    • warm season grass
    • regeneration by seed
    • climax species
    • frequently growing under shrubs
    • can remain green if moisture is available
  123. Muhlenbergia porteri - Forage Quality, Palatability and Cover
    • Preferred forage
    • biomass production low
    • good to excellent palatability
    • fair to good cover for small birds and mammals
  124. Muhlenbergia porteri - Drought/stress, grazing, fire tolerance
    • drought resistant
    • shade tolerant
    • decreaser species
    • heavy branching = heavy grazing
    • topkilled fire: regenerates from crown and seed in seed bank
  125. Ring muhly
    • Family/Tribe: Eragrosteae
    • Scientific Name: Muhlenbergia torreyi
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  126. Muhlenbergia torreyi - ID
    • •Panicle open with capillary branches usually red to purplish
    • •Blades shorter in basal cluster
    • •Decumbent stems-curving upward from a horizontal or incline base with only the end ascending
    • •Rhizomatous-short rhizomes
    • •forming a mat like ring as the colony expands outward and dies in the center
  127. Muhlenbergia torreyi - Plant attributes
    • warm season grass
    • sod-forming (mat) plant
    • ring growth occurs as the center dies out as the plant enlarges
    • rings range in size from inches to feet
  128. Muhlenbergia torreyi - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • low forage value
    • low forage production
    • fair for livestock, poor to wildlife
    • low palatability
    • forage for prairie dogs
    • low cover value
  129. Muhlenbergia torreyi - Drought/Stress, Grazing, Fire tolerance
    • tolerates stress or disturbance conditions
    • increaser species
    • regeneration following fire from rhizomes, crown and seed
  130. Tanglehead
    • Family: Poaceae
    • Scientific Name: Heteropogon contortus
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  131. Heteropogon contortus - ID
    • •Unilateral spikate raceme
    • •Spikelets are imbricate
    • •Awns 5-12 cm, brown-black, twice geniculated (bent)
    • •Glumes with white margins
    • •Leaf tip and base turn red at maturity
  132. Heteropogon contortus - Plant attributes
    • warm season grass
    • cespitose growth form
    • regeneration by seed
    • early successional species
    • considered a noxious introduction in Cali.
  133. Heteropogon contortus - Forage Quality, Palatability, and cover
    • fair to good forage
    • fair cover for small mammals and birds
  134. Heteropogon contortus - Drought/Stress, grazing tolerance
    • not as drought tolerant
    • summertime moisture
    • increaser grazing
  135. Red brome
    • Family: Poaceae
    • Scientific Name: Bromus rubens
    • origin: Introduced
    • Life Span: Annual
  136. Bromus rubens - ID
    • •Congested panicle
    • •Oval shape
    • •Red throughout (when mature)
    • •Spikelets rough to hairy, awns 18-22 mm long
    • •Hairy sheath
  137. Bromus rubens - Plant Attributes
    • Invader that establishes rapidly on disturbed sites
    • forms monocultures the exclude other species
    • traits that are comparable to cheatgrass
  138. Bromus rubens - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • Provides fair forage in Oct. through the winter
    • Forage value declines to poor during April
    • Plants are avoided when mature
    • Low Palatability (awns cause mouth, skin and eye irritations)
    • Provides low cover (poor habitat)
  139. Bromus rubens - Drought/Stress, Grazing, Fire Tolerance
    • Salt Tolerant
    • Cold Tolerant
    • Invader
    • Establishes on disturbed sites including heavily grazed areas
    • Changes fire frequency
    • Rapid recovery following fire
  140. Annual broomweed
    • Family: Asteraceae
    • Scientific Name: Amphiachyris dracunculoides
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Annual
  141. Amphiachyris dracunculoides - ID
    • yellow flowers
    • leaves: alternate, linear to eliptic, resinous
    • shrub-like growth form
  142. Amphiachyris dracunculoides - Plant Attributes
    • Warm season forb
    • unbranched 1/2 of its height with straight stem
    • flowers in mid summer
    • found on disturbed sites
  143. Amphiachyris dracunculoides - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • Not used as a forage species
    • low forage value
    • low palatability
    • low cover and poor habitat quality
  144. Amphiachyris dracunculoides - Drought/Stress, Grazing, Fire Tolerance
    • stress and disturbance tolerant
    • rapidly establishes following heavy grazing
    • high potential to re-establish following fire
  145. Desert Marigold
    • Family: Asteraceae
    • Scientific Name: Baileya multiradiata
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  146. Baileya multiradiata - ID
    • •heads on long peduncle, stalk
    • •many showy yellow ray flowers (3-toothed)
    • •Leaves wooly pubescent (lobed)
    • •Forms basal rosette
    • •Stems densely wooly
  147. Baileya multiradiata - Plant Attributes
    • warm season forb
    • 50 - 60 cm height
    • flowering triggered by precipitation
    • short lived plant
  148. Baileya multiradiata - Forage quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • Not valued as forage
    • poisonous
    • drug used inhibit tumor formation in cancer patients
    • low palatability
    • low nutrient content
    • low cover value (habitat)
  149. Bailey multiradiata - Drought/Stress, Grazing Tolerance
    • drought tolerant
    • damaged by cold
    • not grazed
    • increases with decreased competition
  150. Catclaw acacia
    • Family: Fabaceae
    • Scientific Name: Acacia greggii
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  151. Acacia greggii - ID
    • branches have internodal sharp curved spines
    • compound, alternate
    • leaflest slightly awn tipped
  152. Acacia greggii - Plant Attributes
    • •Long-lived (100-120 years)
    • •Deciduous plant (usually 1-2 m tall)
    • •High water use efficiency
    • •Deep taproot
    • •Regeneration from seed and root crown sprouts
    • •Important source of nectar for bees (honey)
    • •Seed dispersed by animals
  153. Acacia greggii - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • •Marginal forage for livestock (cattle)
    • •Forage mostly used in spring (young twigs, leaves)
    • •Forage for deer (5-20% of diet in locations)
    • •Rabbits and rodents often feed on acacia leaves and seeds
    • •Pods not as palatable as Prosopis
    • •Excellent cover for mammals and birds
  154. Acacia greggii - Drought/Stress, Grazing, Fire tolerance
    • highly drought tolerant
    • saline and alkaline tolerance
    • able to withstand heavy grazing pressure
    • grazing plants increases lateral growth
    • typical topkilled by fire
    • plants resprout from base following fire
  155. Apache plume
    • Family: Rosaceae
    • Scientific Name: Fallugia paradoxa
    • Origin: Native
    • Life Span: Perennial
  156. Fallugia paradoxa - ID
    • •flowers solitary
    • •achene with a long feathery style
    • •Leaves: alternate and clustered, wedge shaped, 3-7 fingered lobes
    • •Twigs white, stems dark
  157. Fallugia paradoxa - Plant Attributes
    • •Cool season shrub
    • •Regeneration from seed and sprouting
    • •Flowering as early as April
    • •Very common along water courses
  158. Fallugia paradoxa - Forage Quality, Palatability, and Cover
    • •fair forage
    • •low amounts by mule deer
    • •Nutrient value is fair

    •Provides cover to small mammals and birds, and larger mammals
  159. Fallugia paradoxa - Drought/Sterss, Grazing Tolerance
    • High drought tolerance
    • endures close grazing

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