Anatomy Ch27

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tlcolumna
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44469
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Anatomy Ch27
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2010-10-24 00:50:44
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Anatomy Reproductive System
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Anatomy The Reproductive system
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  1. What does the human reproductive system do?
    It produces, stores, nourishes, and transports functional gametes
  2. What are Functional Gametes?
    They are haploid reproductive cells that has ½ the normal number of chromosomes
  3. What is Fertilization?
    It is the fusion of a sperm from the male and a immature ovum from the female to form a zygote?
  4. What is a Zygote?
    A Fertilized egg
  5. What things do the Reproductive system includes?
    Gonads, ducts, accessory glands and organs, and the external genitalia
  6. The Sperm is produce where and how is it expelled?
    It is produced in the testes; they are expelled from the body in semen during ejaculation
  7. The ______ of a sexually mature female produces an egg that travels along the ________ to reach the ______.
    Ovaries; uterine tubes; uterus
  8. What connects the uterus with the exterior?
    Vagina
  9. The Spermatozoa has to travel along what before leaving the body?
    Epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and the urethra.
  10. What are the accessory organs that secrete into the ejaculatory ducts and urethra?
    Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands.
  11. The _________ encloses the testes, and the _____ is an erectile organ.
    Scrotum; Penis
  12. The _________ through the inguinal canals occurs during development.
    Descent of the testes
  13. Before developemnt, the testes are held in place by the what?
    Gubernaculums testis
  14. Dure the seventh developmental month, differential growth and contraction of the _______ causes the testes to descend.
    Gubernaculums testis
  15. The testes remain collected to the abdominal cavity through the ________.
    Spermatic Cords
  16. What marks the boundary between the two chambers in the crotum?
    Perineal Raphe
  17. Each testis lies in it own what?
    Scrotal Cavity
  18. Contraction of the _______ gives the crotum a wrinkled apperance; the _______ pulls the testes closer to the body.
    Dartos Muscle; cremaster muscle
  19. What is a serious membrane that covers the tunica albuginea?
    Tunica Vaginalis
  20. What is the fibrous capsule the surrounds each testis?
    Tunica Albuginea
  21. Septa extend from the tunica albuginea to the ________, creating a series of ______.
    Mediastinum; lobules
  22. What is within each lobule are the sites of sperm production?
    Seminiferous tubules
  23. From Seminiferous tubules, sperm pass through a ______ to the _______.
    Straight tubule; rete testis.
  24. What connects the rete testis to the epididymis?
    Efferent Ducts
  25. Between somniferous tubules, __________ secrete male sex hormones, androgens.
    Interstitial cells
  26. Seminiferous tubules contain __________, stem cells involved in ____________.
    Spermatogonia; Spermatogeneis
  27. What is Spermatogeneis?
    Production of Sperm
  28. The Spermatogonia produce _____________, _________ cells ready undergo _________.
    Primary Spermatocytes; diploid; meiosis
  29. How man spermatids are produced for every primary spermatocyte?
    4
  30. The spermatids remain embedded within ________ while they mature into a ________.
    Sustentacular Cell; Spermatozoon
  31. The sustentacular cells function to maintain the blood-testis barries, support spermatogenesis, secrete ______m and secrete _______.
    Inhibin; Androgen-Bindin Protein
  32. Each spermatozoon what what parts?
    Head, Neck, Middle Piece, and Tail
  33. The tip of the a sperm head has what?
    A Acrosomal Cap
  34. The tail of a sperm has what?
    A single Flagellum
  35. Why does spermatozoon have to absorb nutrients from the environment?
    Because they lack most intracellular structures.
  36. After detaching from the sustentacular cells, the spermatozoa are carried along fluid currents into the epididymis, an elongate tubule with what three things?
    Head, body and tail
  37. What does the Head of sperm contain?
    Densely packed chromosomes
  38. What does the Epididymis do?
    • Monitors and Adjusts the composition of the tubular fluid
    • Serves as a recycling center for damaged spermatozoa
    • stores spermatozoa
    • facilitates their functional maturation
  39. The __________ begins at the epididymis and passes through the inguinal canal as one component of the spermatic cord.
    Ductu Deferen or Vas Deferens
  40. Near the prostate, it englarges to form the what?
    Amulla
  41. The junctions of the base of the seminal vesicle and the ampulla creats what?
    Ejaculatory duct
  42. What ductus deferens function to do what?
    To transport and store spermatozoa
  43. The Urethra extends from what to what?
    Urinary bladder to the tip of the penis.
  44. The urethra can be divided into what three regions?
    Prostatic urethra, membranous urethra, and spongy urethra
  45. The accessory glands of the male reproductive system function to do what?
    To activate and provide nutrients to the spermatozoa and produce buffers to neutralize the acidity of the urethra and vagina
  46. What is an active secretory gland that contributes about 60 percent of the volume of the semen; its secretions are high in fructose which is easily used to produce APT by spermatozoa?
    Seminal Vesicle
  47. What secretes a weakly acidic fluid that accounts 20-30 percent of the volume of semen?
    Prostate gland
  48. These secretions contain an antibiotic, ______, which may help prevent urinary tract infections in men.
    Seminalplasmin
  49. A typical Ejaculation release how much of semen and contains how much sperm?
    2-5ml and a sperm count of 20-100
  50. The penis can be divided into what?
    Root (Made of Crura), body(shaft) and glands
  51. The ______ surrounds the tip of the penis.
    Prepuce (foreskin)
  52. Most of the body of the penis consist of three masses of what?
    Erectile Tisue
  53. When the smooth muscles in the arterial walls relax, the erectile tissue becomes engorged with blood, producing what?
    Erection.
  54. Principal structures of female reproductive system include what?
    The Ovaries, Uterine Tubes, Uterus, Vagina, and External Genitalia
  55. What is the uterus made of?
    It is made of muscular later of myometrium
  56. The ovaries are held in position by the _________ and the ________.
    Ovarian Ligament; Suspensory Ligament
  57. What occur monthly in ovarian follicles as part of the ovarian cycle?
    Oogenesis
  58. What are the steps of Oogensis?
    • 1. Formation of primary, secondary and tertiary follicles
    • 2. Ovulation
    • 3. Formation and Degeneration of the Corpus Luteum
  59. The decline in progesterone and estrogen triggers the secretion of ____, which in turn triggers a rise in FSH ans LH production, and the entire cycle begins again.
    GnRH
  60. What has an expanded funnel which is called what and with what?
    Uterine Tube; infundibulum; Fimbrae
  61. What three parts open into the Uterine cavity?
    • Ampulla
    • Isthmus
    • Intramural Part
  62. What does the uterus provide?
    It provides mechanical protection and nutritional support to the developing embryo.
  63. The uterus is stabilized by what three ligaments?
    • Uterosacral Ligaments
    • Round Ligaments
    • Cardinal Ligaments
  64. The gross divisions of the uterus include the what?
    • Body
    • Fundus
    • Isthmus
    • Cervix
    • External OS
    • Uterine Cavity
    • Cervical Canal
    • Internal OS
  65. The Uterine can be divided into what?
    • Inner Endometrium
    • Muscular Myometrium
    • Superficial Perimetrium
  66. A typlical 28-Day Uterine Cycle(Menstrual Cycle) begins with the onset of what?
    Menses and the destruction of the functional zone of the endometrium
  67. The process of _____ continues from 1-7days.
    Menstruation
  68. After Menses, the ______ begins and the functional zone undergoes repair and thickens.
    Proliferative phase
  69. Menstrual activity begins at menarche and continues until what?
    Menopause
  70. What is a Vagina?
    is an elastic, muscular tube extending between the uterus and external genitalia.
  71. What does the vagina do?
    The vagina serves as a passageway for menstrual fluids, receives the penis during sexual intercourse, and forms the lower portion of the birth canal.
  72. A thin epithelial fold, the ____, partially blocks the vagina entrance.
    Hymen
  73. The Structures of the vulva include the what?
    Vestibule, labia minora, clitoris, labia majora
  74. What keeps the vulva area moistened in the around the vestibule?
    The lesser and greater vestibular glands
  75. The fatty _______ creates the outer limit of the vulva.
    Mons Pubis
  76. What lie in the subcutaneous layer beneath the skin of the chest and are the site of milk prouction or lactation?
    Mammary Glands
  77. The ducts of underlying mammary glands open onto the body surface of the _______.
    Nipple
  78. Mammary glands develop during pregnancy under the influence of prolactin and growth hormone from the anterior pituitary, as well as what from placenta?
    Human Placental Lactogen (HPL)
  79. What develops functions as a temporary endocrine organ, producing several important hormones and facilitate gas and nutrient exchange.
    Placenta
  80. By the time the corpus luteum degenerates, the placenta is what?
    is actively secrecting both estrogen and progesterone.
  81. What does they placenta produce?
    Relaxin

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