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Anatomy Reproductive System
Anatomy The Reproductive system
What does the human reproductive system do?
It produces, stores, nourishes, and transports functional gametes
What are Functional Gametes?
They are haploid reproductive cells that has ½ the normal number of chromosomes
What is Fertilization?
It is the fusion of a sperm from the male and a immature ovum from the female to form a zygote?
What is a Zygote?
A Fertilized egg
What things do the Reproductive system includes?
Gonads, ducts, accessory glands and organs, and the external genitalia
The Sperm is produce where and how is it expelled?
It is produced in the testes; they are expelled from the body in semen during ejaculation
The ______ of a sexually mature female produces an egg that travels along the ________ to reach the ______.
Ovaries; uterine tubes; uterus
What connects the uterus with the exterior?
The Spermatozoa has to travel along what before leaving the body?
Epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and the urethra.
What are the accessory organs that secrete into the ejaculatory ducts and urethra?
Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands.
The _________ encloses the testes, and the _____ is an erectile organ.
The _________ through the inguinal canals occurs during development.
Descent of the testes
Before developemnt, the testes are held in place by the what?
Dure the seventh developmental month, differential growth and contraction of the _______ causes the testes to descend.
The testes remain collected to the abdominal cavity through the ________.
What marks the boundary between the two chambers in the crotum?
Each testis lies in it own what?
Contraction of the _______ gives the crotum a wrinkled apperance; the _______ pulls the testes closer to the body.
Dartos Muscle; cremaster muscle
What is a serious membrane that covers the tunica albuginea?
What is the fibrous capsule the surrounds each testis?
Septa extend from the tunica albuginea to the ________, creating a series of ______.
What is within each lobule are the sites of sperm production?
From Seminiferous tubules, sperm pass through a ______ to the _______.
Straight tubule; rete testis.
What connects the rete testis to the epididymis?
Between somniferous tubules, __________ secrete male sex hormones, androgens.
Seminiferous tubules contain __________, stem cells involved in ____________.
What is Spermatogeneis?
Production of Sperm
The Spermatogonia produce _____________, _________ cells ready undergo _________.
Primary Spermatocytes; diploid; meiosis
How man spermatids are produced for every primary spermatocyte?
The spermatids remain embedded within ________ while they mature into a ________.
Sustentacular Cell; Spermatozoon
The sustentacular cells function to maintain the blood-testis barries, support spermatogenesis, secrete ______m and secrete _______.
Inhibin; Androgen-Bindin Protein
Each spermatozoon what what parts?
Head, Neck, Middle Piece, and Tail
The tip of the a sperm head has what?
A Acrosomal Cap
The tail of a sperm has what?
A single Flagellum
Why does spermatozoon have to absorb nutrients from the environment?
Because they lack most intracellular structures.
After detaching from the sustentacular cells, the spermatozoa are carried along fluid currents into the epididymis, an elongate tubule with what three things?
Head, body and tail
What does the Head of sperm contain?
Densely packed chromosomes
What does the Epididymis do?
Monitors and Adjusts the composition of the tubular fluid
Serves as a recycling center for damaged spermatozoa
facilitates their functional maturation
The __________ begins at the epididymis and passes through the inguinal canal as one component of the spermatic cord.
Ductu Deferen or Vas Deferens
Near the prostate, it englarges to form the what?
The junctions of the base of the seminal vesicle and the ampulla creats what?
What ductus deferens function to do what?
To transport and store spermatozoa
The Urethra extends from what to what?
Urinary bladder to the tip of the penis.
The urethra can be divided into what three regions?
Prostatic urethra, membranous urethra, and spongy urethra
The accessory glands of the male reproductive system function to do what?
To activate and provide nutrients to the spermatozoa and produce buffers to neutralize the acidity of the urethra and vagina
What is an active secretory gland that contributes about 60 percent of the volume of the semen; its secretions are high in fructose which is easily used to produce APT by spermatozoa?
What secretes a weakly acidic fluid that accounts 20-30 percent of the volume of semen?
These secretions contain an antibiotic, ______, which may help prevent urinary tract infections in men.
A typical Ejaculation release how much of semen and contains how much sperm?
2-5ml and a sperm count of 20-100
The penis can be divided into what?
Root (Made of Crura), body(shaft) and glands
The ______ surrounds the tip of the penis.
Most of the body of the penis consist of three masses of what?
When the smooth muscles in the arterial walls relax, the erectile tissue becomes engorged with blood, producing what?
Principal structures of female reproductive system include what?
The Ovaries, Uterine Tubes, Uterus, Vagina, and External Genitalia
What is the uterus made of?
It is made of muscular later of myometrium
The ovaries are held in position by the _________ and the ________.
Ovarian Ligament; Suspensory Ligament
What occur monthly in ovarian follicles as part of the ovarian cycle?
What are the steps of Oogensis?
1. Formation of primary, secondary and tertiary follicles
3. Formation and Degeneration of the Corpus Luteum
The decline in progesterone and estrogen triggers the secretion of ____, which in turn triggers a rise in FSH ans LH production, and the entire cycle begins again.
What has an expanded funnel which is called what and with what?
Uterine Tube; infundibulum; Fimbrae
What three parts open into the Uterine cavity?
What does the uterus provide?
It provides mechanical protection and nutritional support to the developing embryo.
The uterus is stabilized by what three ligaments?
The gross divisions of the uterus include the what?
The Uterine can be divided into what?
A typlical 28-Day Uterine Cycle(Menstrual Cycle) begins with the onset of what?
Menses and the destruction of the functional zone of the endometrium
The process of _____ continues from 1-7days.
After Menses, the ______ begins and the functional zone undergoes repair and thickens.
Menstrual activity begins at menarche and continues until what?
What is a Vagina?
is an elastic, muscular tube extending between the uterus and external genitalia.
What does the vagina do?
The vagina serves as a passageway for menstrual fluids, receives the penis during sexual intercourse, and forms the lower portion of the birth canal.
A thin epithelial fold, the ____, partially blocks the vagina entrance.
The Structures of the vulva include the what?
Vestibule, labia minora, clitoris, labia majora
What keeps the vulva area moistened in the around the vestibule?
The lesser and greater vestibular glands
The fatty _______ creates the outer limit of the vulva.
What lie in the subcutaneous layer beneath the skin of the chest and are the site of milk prouction or lactation?
The ducts of underlying mammary glands open onto the body surface of the _______.
Mammary glands develop during pregnancy under the influence of prolactin and growth hormone from the anterior pituitary, as well as what from placenta?
Human Placental Lactogen (HPL)
What develops functions as a temporary endocrine organ, producing several important hormones and facilitate gas and nutrient exchange.
By the time the corpus luteum degenerates, the placenta is what?
is actively secrecting both estrogen and progesterone.
What does they placenta produce?